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4 Yoga Postures to Kick-Off Constipation

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4 Yoga Posture to kick off Constipation:

  Are you suffering from constipation? You are feeling uneasy due to hard stools or have dissatisfaction with your regular defecation! Is it your regular morning problem? If it’s, practice 4 yoga to kick off constipation early in the morning, after drinking a full glass of lukewarm water. I am sure that it would solve your problem within a few days. 

 Before going to discuss these Asanas, I’m willing to point out here why we face this painful situation. Why constipation? 

    The Causes of Constipation & 4 Yoga to kick-off

  1. The people who are usually don’t have taken sufficient green vegetables and are mainly habituated to non-veg, they’re generally the victims of constipation. –
  2. Secondly, the non-movement of the body is another cause. Perhaps they are using four or two Wheelers, to go second or third floor of their office using the lift, abstain from physical activity, or working the whole day sittingg before laptops or doing office works constantly sitting on ca hair. 
  3. The people who avoid solid foods like dal, chana, and so on. 
  4. The people who are not getting sound sleep at the night. 
  5. Diabetes people are to encounter constipation. 

 The morning problem of constipation is not healthy at all. It’s ultimately the cause of different kinds of health problems. Probably you are taking medicine or other types of alternative medicine. But you are still not satisfied with all these. So the way to relieve this problem is through yoga practice. So practice only 4 yoga to kick off your constipation.

 Yoga practice regularly in the morning can be the only way to get a permanent solution. Only practice 4 yoga early in the morning. 

 Only a few minutes of practising yoga can remove your long-term health problems. Constipation might because by various types of severe ailments. So we don’t indulge in it . 

    Now we have to know the yoga poses which are helpful to clear our regular stools.


ethnic woman doing yoga in wind removing pose
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If you practice this yoga pose regularly early in the morning, various types of ailments like indigestion, piles, fistula, heartburn,  and so on. 

Pavanamuktasana (Sanskrit: पवनमुक्तासन, romanized: Pavanamuktāsana)Vatayanasana, or Wind-Relieving asana is an asana in modern yoga as exercise.


The name comes from the Sanskrit पवन pavan, “wind”, मुक्त Mukta, “free” and आसन asana, “posture” or “seat”. The pose is unknown in medieval hatha yoga, appearing in the 20th century, for example as one of the set poses in the basic sequence of Bikram Yoga.

This asana is three stages:

In the very first stage, you lie on your back stretching yourr legs Straight but right. Then bend your right knee and holds it with your hands. Now deeply press it towards your abdomen. Breathing out, then lift your head and touch your knee with your chin. Breathing in, and stretch your legs straight.

In the second stage, the you press your abdomen with your left leg.

In the third stage, the you press your abdomen with both legs, placingyour chin between your knees. From this position, you swing your body back and forth 5 to 10 times and then swing your body left to right and right to left 5 to 10 times.

The three stages above form one round. You practice it three to four rounds .

Some sources differentiate between double leg, Dvi Pada Pavanamuktasana (DVI = “two”, pada = “leg”), and single-leg, Eka Pada Pavanamuktasana (aka = “one”, pada = “leg”) forms.

Salamba Eka Pada Pavanamuktasana is a Supported One-Legged Wind-Relieving Pose, using props.


1. Lie on your back or in a supine position, with your arms beside your body.


2. Exhale, bringing your knees towards your chest and pressing your thighs on your abdomen with clasped hands.

Inhale again.

3. As you exhale, raise your head off the floor, letting your chin touch your knees.

Hold this pose as you take deep, long breaths in and out.

4. Release the pose to return to the starting position, bringing your head down first and then your legs – this is one round.

Do 2-3 rounds and then relax.

Benefits of Pawanmuktasana:

It strengthens abdominal muscles and reduces belly fat.

It massages the intestines and other abdominal organs.

It tones the arm, leg, and buttocks.

It aids weight loss.

It promotes digestion and relieves constipation.

It strengthens the back.

It enhances blood circulation in the hip joints.

It eases tension, especially in the lower back.

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Bhujangasana (Sanskrit: भुजंगासन;  Bhujaṅgāsana) or Cobra Pose is a reclining back-bending asana in hatha yoga and modern yoga as exercise. It is commonly performed in a cycle of asanas in Surya Namaskar (Salute to the Sun) as an alternative to Urdhva Mukha Svanasana (Upward Dog Pose).



This article contains the Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

The Source and Etymology

The pose is named for its resemblance to a cobra with its hood raised.

The name comes from the Sanskrit words भुजंग bhujaṅga, “snake” or “cobra” and आसन āsana, “posture” or “seat”, from the resemblance to a cobra with its hood raised and was described in the 17th-century hatha yoga text Gheranda Samhita in chapter 2, verses 42-43. In the 19th century Sritattvanidhi, the pose is named Sarpasana, which similarly means Serpent Pose.

Variant form with a less extreme backbend

The posture starts from a prone position or Downward Dog. Placed your palms under the shoulders, pushing down until the hips lift slightly. The backs of the feet rest on the ground. And the legs outstretched. The eye – gaze is directed forwards, giving the preparatory pose.

On the other hand, for the full pose, the back is arched until the arms are straight, and you gaze at direct straight upwards or a little backwards. The legs remain on the ground, unlike in the similar Upward Dog pose.

However, Bhujangasana is part of the sequence of yoga postures in some forms of Surya Namaskar, the Salute to the Sun.

An easier variant is Sphinx Pose, sometimes called Salamba Bhujangasana (षलम्ब भुजंगासन), in which the forearms rest on the ground, giving a gentler back end. It is used in the long holds of Yin Yoga, either with the forearms on the ground or with the arms straightened.

Advanced practitioners may fold the legs into Padmasana (lotus).

The pose can be modified, for instance, in pregnancy, by placing a blanket under the pelvis.

Bhujangasana Steps/4 yoga to kick off constipation

Here is your step-by-step guide to performing Bhujangasana: http://Swami Vivekananda’s Raja yoga

  1. Lie down on the floor with your chest and abdomen touching the ground.

2. Place your palms near your chest and raise your torso slowly. Make sure that you keep your elbows straight to avoid injury.

3. Lift your entire upper body, including the neck, chest, shoulders, and head.

4. You must ensure that your body weight falls on your hands and thighs, not your stomach or torso.

5. Slowly bend your neck and feel some pressure in your spine. While doing so, you need to hold your breath.

After 10-15 minutes, you can release the Bhujangasana pose by slowly lowering your abdomen to the ground, followed by the torso and head.

Benefits of Bhujangasana (Cobra Pose)

Although bhujangasana is practised to balance the chakras, the basic notion of this asana is to remain active and supercharged to achieve a healthy lifestyle. The benefits of bhujangasana are profound in yoga that contributes to the body’s natural healing.

1. Can curtail the Extra Fat

Bhujangasana steps target the extra fat in the abdomen area and burn calories while making muscles more flexible. Practising this asana also boosts metabolism, thereby increasing the burning of calorie intake. Besides, Cobra poses yoga helps to tone the buttocks while reducing extra fat and toning the spinal muscles.

2. Corrects Digestion problems

A natural stimulator for gastrointestinal functioning, the regular practice of Bhujangasana helps stimulate the digestive organs and the secretion of digestive fluids. This ensures better absorption of food.

3. Enhances Flexibility

Bhujangasana enhances the flexibility of muscles by opening up the shoulders and neck. Moreover, It also relieves pain and fortifies the stiffness of the lower back.

4. Improves Blood Circulation

Bhujangasana pose helps in better circulation of oxygen in blood vessels of the heart and various organs. Good blood circulation promotes better nutrients and hormones while eliminating waste products.

5. Regulates Menstrual Irregularities and corrects cramps during periods

When practised regularly, the Cobra pose helps regulate irregular menstrual cycles. Besides, it also relieves cramps and pain during periods. A regular cycle is crucial for a healthy reproductive system.

6. Strengthens the Reproductive System

When it comes to revitalising the hormonal system and reproduction, the Cobra pose helps in multiple ways if practised regularly. It does enhance the blood flow to the uterus and ovaries, detoxifies the body, and relieves anxiety and stress, thereby strengthening the overall reproductive system.

7. Removes Fatigue And Stress

Cobra pose helps in coping with fatigue, depression, and stress-related problems. Integrating this dynamic pose into your daily routine elevates not only your mood but also calms your mind.

8. Reduces Symptoms Of Asthma

If you are struggling with respiratory disorders such as asthma, bhujangasana helps unlock the chest congestion while clearing up the passage of the heart and lungs. This asana proves to be therapeutic as it helps in expanding the chest cavity, giving more space for your rib cage to open up.

9. Strengthening Hand And Shoulder Muscles

While performing bhujangasana, when you lift your body for a few minutes, your hands and shoulders manage to carry your body weight. Therefore, this asana helps strengthen the biceps and triceps while making your abdomen stronger.

10. Corrects Body Posture

Bhujangasana contributes to strengthening your back muscles and providing them with great physical strength. It helps eliminate slouching on your upper back, thereby correcting your body posture.

11. Helps Relieve Pain from Injuries

The cobra pose works as a cushion to protect your body from excessive pain due to unavoidable injuries. It stretches frontal planes, making them flexible and easing any tightness in the muscles. Further, it also relieves the sciatica pain of the legs by softening the spinal impingement.

12. Awaken Kundalini Chakra

With bhujangasana techniques, you can unblock your Kundalini chakra that lies dormant at the base of the spine. If any of the seven energy chakras are blocked, your life will become stagnant, contributing to physical, mental, and spiritual ailments. When chakras are active and awakened, energy flows easily through the body, soul, and mind.

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Ardha chakrasana is an intermediate asana that can help to prepare the body and mind for deeper backbends and heart-opening postures like chakrasana (wheel pose). The name is derived from the Sanskrit Ardha, meaning “half,” chakra, meaning “wheel,” and asana, meaning “pose.”

To enter Ardha chakrasana, the practitioner begins in tadasana (mountain pose). The hands are placed on the lower back, and then the body leans back, bending them back and opening the chest.

Ardha chakrasana is known as half wheel pose in English.

Ardha Chakrasana

Ardha chakrasana is an effective posture for reducing stress and aiding posture by reversing the habitual pattern of slumping forward and rounding the shoulders. It helps to release the neck and shoulders, relieving tension and it’s helpful to remove constipation. 

It is thought to regulate blood pressure, particularly for those suffering from high blood pressure. This asana is also said to have a cleansing effect on the nervous system.

On an energetic level, this posture energizes the Muladhara (root) and Anahata (heart) chakras because of the stability required for the pose, and its heart-opening action.

 Ardha chakrasana (like all backbends) is thought to awaken kundalini and bring the energy of the body up through the spine. If blockages such as emotional issues are encountered here, this can cause difficult feelings to surface.

It is recommended that backbends be practised gently, only moving deeper as the body and mind are ready.

What are the main benefits of Ardha Chakrasana?

Ardha Chakrasana tones shoulders, thighs, and waist, and helps stretch the abdomen, stomach and intestine muscles. This asana helps relieve shoulder and neck pain. This yoga pose helps cure respiratory disorders. This asana helps stimulate abdominal organs like the pancreas. So practising this yoga you can kick off your constipation within a short period of time.

Standing Backward Bend (Ardha Chakrasana)

Ardha Chakrasana Yoga Pose – Half Moon Yoga Pose – Standing Backward Bend Yoga Pose

Ardha= Half; Chakra= Wheel; asana= Pose

Pronounced: ardhah-Chak-rah-asana

How to do Standing Backward Bend (Ardha CChakasana)

1. Stand straight with feet together and arms alongside the body.

2. Balance your weight equally on both feet

Breathing in, extend your arms overhead, palms facing each other.

3. Breathing out, gently bend backwards pushing the pelvis forward, keeping the arms in line with the ears, elbows and knees straight, head up, and lifting your chest towards the ceiling.

4. Hold. Breathing in, come back up.

Breathing out, bring your arms down and relax.

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VAJRASANA / 4 yoga to kick off constipation

Vajrasana makes the body of the doer or practitioner (of this asana) as stronger as a diamond. Breathing poses or exercises like kapalabhati, Pranayama and Anulom-Vilom are performed in the Vajrasana position.

Word meaning

Vajrasana or Diamond / Thunderbold or Adamintine or Kneeling Pose

Meaning –

Vajra = Diamond

Asana = Pose, Posture

Generally, most asanas are advised to be done on empty stomach or before taking food, Vajrasana is an exception to this rule. It can even be done after taking food. It gives good results when performed immediately after taking food, especially in proper digestion.

Health Benefits of Performing Vajrasana 

1. Good for our Digestive System

Performing vajrasana helps our digestive system in many ways. It obstructs blood flow to our legs and thighs and increases it in our stomach area, thus improving our bowel movements and relieving constipation.

Vajrasana also helps us to get rid of flatulence (gas) and acidity. It ensures better absorption of nutrients by our body.

Normally any kind of exercise or yoga is not performed immediately after having meals. But it is good to perform Vajrasana after meals since it helps indigestion.

2. Relieves Low Back Pain

Performing Vajrasana helps to strengthen our lower back muscles, thus providing relief from occasional pain and discomfort.

It also helps to relieve pain caused by sciatica.

3. Keeps blood sugar levels under control

Furthermore, Vajrasana can also help in controlling diabetes. It is one of the asanas that reinforces the metabolites for diabetes. Besides, It stimulates the abdominal organs like the pancreas and liver, thereby improving the body’s ability to produce insulin optimally.

So practising Vajrasana can facilitate short-term improvements in fasting glucose levels. And also it an excellent asana for people with diabetes. 

4. Relieves Rheumatic Pain

Regular performing Vajrasana helps to increase the flexibility of thigh and foot muscles and also the muscles around our hip, knees and ankles. This helps to relieve rheumatic pain in these areas due to stiffness.

Vajrasana also helps in reducing heel pain caused due to calcaneal spurs and pain due by gout.

5. Strengthens Pelvic Floor Muscles

Performing Vajrasana increases blood circulation in the pelvis and strengthens our pelvic floor muscles.

It is thus useful for women suffering from stress urinary incontinence. It also helps to ease out labour pains and menstrual cramps.

6. Helps to Calm Our Mind/4 yoga to kick off constipation

Vajrasana is a good asana to practice meditation. Performing breathing exercises in this pose helps to calm our minds and benefit us emotionally.

Vajrasana reduces stress, improves concentration and keeps depression and anxiety away.

Read More: 7 Different Relaxation Techniques that Help Fight Stress

7. Treatment of Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Vajrasana helps to reduce stress, and blood pressure levels. Therefore, protects us from various cardiovascular disorders.

8. Improves Sleep

Performing Vajrasana calms us and reduces stress and anxiety. It thus helps us in getting a good night’s sleep.

Also Read: 6 Health Benefits of Sleep

9. Reduces Obesity

Vajrasana boosts our digestion and helps to reduce belly fat. It is found to be effective in reducing Body Mass Index and Obesity.

How to perform Vajrasana?

1. Start with the kneeling down position. You can sit on a yoga mat for comfort.

2. Then gently sit back on your legs, taking the weight off your knees.

3. Keep a gap of four fingers between the knees and sit erect with buttocks resting on your heels. The thighs of both the legs should rest on both the calves respectively and the big toe of both the feet should touch each other.

4. Place your hands on your knees. Then keep your back straight and look straight with your gaze forward. Head straight and chin parallel to the ground.

5. Concentrate on your breathing as you slowly inhale and exhale air,in and out of your lungs.

Try to remain in this position for 5 to 10 minutes. You can gradually increase the time to around 30 minutes per day.

Practice all the 4 yoga poses. Don’t take any medication for constipation. Medicine can help you for a certain period. But you will face again this problem as soon as you abstain from intake of the medicines. So practice these 4 poses to be freed from constipation. 

Precautions :

Pregnant women must not do any yoga poses without the supervision of yoga trainer. 

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The Experience Of Facing Depression

Dr Sushil Kumar Rudra

Steel City Durgapur

My dear Readers, Today, I am going to portray a real story of a rural guy who had to face a bitter experience of depression from his childhood. That’s why the title of this post is” The Experience of Facing Depression”.

Like other village boys, he had to spend his life and regular activities in a rural atmosphere. He was very gentle and sophisticated. His father was a landlord and his mother was a housewife. Therefore, they had a big family. His parents gave birth to six sons and three daughters. Even his widow aunty along with her sons and grandsons usually lived in this big brick-built house.

So the youngest son of the family did not feel any isolation. Though physically he was not very strong. Let’s learn from his mouth how they spent their lives and especially how he had the experience of facing depression. I hope, my readers would enjoy the story.

Read also: Mind – Brain and Depression

The Experience Of Facing Depression:

” I spent my life in a big middle-class family. My father was a landlord and used to stay at the village home. Though we have a home in Sadar or district town in Murshidabad. You all know the history of Murshidabad. The last Nawab of Bengal – Bihar and Odisha, Nawab Sirajudullya had reigned in the Crown during the Mughal period and died in the battle of Plassey.

Murshidabad is the district name, but there is a little town by the name ” Murshidabad”/ Lalbag (the other name of the town ). It’s once the Kingdom of Bengal – Bihar and Odisha. You probably know the history of Murshidabad. How Britishers made a conspiracy with the help of Mirjafar and defeated Nawab of Murshidabad.

That’s another story. So let’s stop it. But there is a similarity of our lives with the previous story. Because my father lost his all property due to new rules made by the then ruling party.

” Though my father was a landlord, the whole life did not spend in the same flow. Suddenly, he had to face economic trouble due to a government injunction rules. The Government at that time passed a rule that no one should possessed more than 75 bighas of agricultural land.

Moreover, CPM party leaders came to our village and they instigated village folks( mostly Mohamedan ) to snatch away the lands from the landlord. Therefore, they forcibly snatched away the lands which was legally ours. Absolutely, this was a bad time for our family. A few years it took time to be normal .

Eventually, it was anarchism in politics. Jyoti Basu was then the Chief Minister of West Bengal. Therefore, our Mahamedan neighbours took this opportunity. They became ferocious at that time. Not all of them, but largely turned into opposition. The situation was such that our family members, especially women didn’t allow outside in broad daylight.

Even it impacts to us. We are then very child, mere a school going boy. Naturally, I was then very nervous. My father’s physical and mental health declined due to this political violence. Eventually, he was forced to become a political victim. Being vested all the property he had to wrap up with deep but silent depressions.

During my teens, I had to experience this situation. Our financial condition was gradually going to worse. Hence, my father became frustrated with the situation he faced with. And ultimately depression wrapped around him and he became a patient of depression.

Gradually we came to our townhouse and took admission in a famous degree college. My immediate elder brother was then a graduate student in the same college. He was a student of the morning season and I’m in the day section as an honours student.

Previously, I have spoken about my father’s bad pecuniary conditions. So our college expenditures were a lot of extra pressure on him. Though we have tried to minimise our expenses. We used to furnish our regular meal ( Lunch & Dinner) with self labour. Never went to hotels for that purpose.

I think we had done a lot for my father sake. After completing three years of graduation from my native town, both the brothers had been shifted to Kolkata ( then Calcutta) for higher education( PG ) and took admission to the University of Calcutta.

My elder brother, who is now a senior Advocate, took already admissionn one year ago to Rabindra Bharati University in Jorasanko, Calcutta.

During our higher education, my one elder brother was a serviceman in Odisha, Jajpur in Talpada Iron Ore Project. Therefore, he used to send money every month for our hostel fee. Though it’s not sufficient for us. My father also gave me some money, not regularly it was.

This was a very crucial time for us. Very tightly we have spent money. Sometimes I used to have a very cheap meal at night. You know that Kolkata is a very cheap city other than Delhi, Mumbai, Bangaluru.

So we have spent there very cautiously. On the other hand, I have been spending a joyful life. I was very popular in the department because of my singing. We have three sections. Almost all my classmates loved me very much. Occasionally, they requested me to sing a song.

Even my eminent teachers knew me for my singing. But I never took any undue advantages from them. I might have been approached before them for giving me sufficient marks. Some of my classmates utilised it, but I couldn’t.

I never express some of my health ailments. (Read also:Mind – Brain and Depression). In my early years, I have been suffering from chronic dysentery and indigestion. I am recalling the days of my childhood when I had been suffering from blood dysentery. For a long time, I didn’t tell, my parents. But all of a sudden it was exposed to all.

Dr. Pal starts allopathic treatment first of all. He was our House surgeon, an experienced Doctor. He treated me with medicine and pushed injection. But it cured temporarily. Therefore, I had to have homoeopathic treatment for a long time, but not fully cured.

One day my Jethima ( the wife of my father’s elder brother) brought a ” Tabitch” – a folk medicine which is powered by mantra( divine words) and said to put on. Surprisingly, within a day or two, I felt well and gradually became normal. I don’t know whether my readers believe or not !

There is another incident that I had to face in the very early years of my life. It’s also a physical ailment. I was suffering from typhoid and it took almost one month to get recover.
Both the ailments massively influenced me. And I would believe that I am less strong than others. In spite of that, I regularly practised Football, Cricket, Ha Du Du and other rural games.

There is another incident. It is an accident. I got burned out by the hot oil when accidentally the hot iron Kadai ( utensil ) slipped away from my hands. My elder brother admitted to the emergency word in hospital for three days and it took almost one month to be cured. It occurred before my final examination of graduation.

So my physical health was not well enough, though I have completed my graduation successfully.

Mentally I was weak then. But continued my study in Calcutta University . Previously I told that my University days were very joyful. But unfortunately, fever attacked me . The local Doctor prescribed me some medicines. After taking it, my fever came down , but my neck turned back. Immediately, my fellow hostel mates and some local brothers shifted me to National Medical College.

I became normal after taking a medicine. I returned to my home. It was also before my final examination of M.A.

Just before examination, I came to Calcutta. One of my favourite teachers Prof. Dr Manas Kumar Majumdar suggested me some questions about special papers. Moreover, he became astonished to see my weak health.

Still, I could not understand that I have been suffering from mental illness. I was not mentally strong enough. I felt panicked when I used to travel by train for six to seven hours. While walking I didn’t feel normal. Sometimes I noticed the darkness before me, yes. ( Read also: RABINDRANATH TAGORE IN DEPRESSION).

This was a terrible experience I have felt. It was just like near the presence of death. Especially it took place while I was alone. If I’m with my friends or anyone acquainted with me, there was no problem. Even I feared to go in hospital or overcrowded place.

It was all the symptoms of panic disorder or attacks. Still, I didn’t take any advice from the Psychiatrists. Yes, one time I went to a specialist before my M.A exam. But truly, I couldn’t express my problems. Because I have no idea about such a mental ailment.

Perhaps my father might have been suffering from mental illness last few years of his life. During that time, he had to face a lot of troubles in family life. Because he was the only earner of my family.

Fortunately, I have got my lectureship in a lien vacancy for three years. So my father got free somewhat.

However, I started my research works for Ph.D then. It was in 1981. My father had died this year. I still remember it. I was then a faculty member in reputed college. So he was proud of that.

On the other hand, the financial crisis had ended. Therefore, I was able to provide financial help for the treatment of my father with an eminent general physician. Though we never thought of any prominent Psychiatry.

Now I understand that he was a patient of mental illness. Even these Doctors could not make out that he should go to psychological treatment. Eventually , I felt that my father was a victim of depression.


Firstly, I have already expressed here the ailments which I have been faced with my physical health. Two major diseases – one is Typhoid and another is blood dysentery.

Secondly, I had to face accident and got burnt with hot oil. Subsequently, I was not fit. During these days I had to face indigestion. Though I have regularly practised Yoga and Pranayama. And I am sure it helped me much.

Thirdly, there was a lot of pressure on my shoulder. I have tried my best to fulfil the demand of my family. On the other hand, I have a lot of pressure on my service life.

Besides, I had to go to Calcutta for my research work. During this period, I had been suffering from panic disorder. It was very strain and painful to me.

At the age of 35, I married. She is educated and intelligent. My mother was then bedridden. After a few months, she left us forever. We then belonged to a joint family. During this period, we were not happy at all. Only we found happiness when my beautiful beloved daughter was born.

However, it was 2nd phase of the experience of facing depression. I used to take some homoeopathic medicines like Kali Phos and Acconite nap.

Eventually, it helps me to control my mental situation. Other than that, I used to practice regularly Arabic and yoga. So it helped me enormously.

However, I was very busy then along with my family, college and tuition. Tuition gives me liquid money. Therefore, two times in the year during summer and Puja vacations we used to go on outings.

Ultimately, we travelled throughout India. We enjoyed it heartily. Never felt any panic or weakness at that time.

But other members of my joint family did not take it with ease. That time I felt that
this world is very critical. Naturally, the bonding of joint family was becoming weak and it turned out to bitterness.

Unfortunately, we decided then for separation from my elder brother. Hence, I felt very isolated. I was then 40. So I became physically and mentally depressed.

However, an experienced Doctor diagnosed me. He was an MD and FRCS. He prescribed some medicines like potheaden. It
continued for a long time. But didn’t alleviate me fully.


How luckily I have been cured from the bitter experience of facing depression. In the meantime, an opportunity came to me for visiting Rajasthan. After visiting almost all of the cities of Rajasthan we have reached Mt. Abu. Luckily, I spent my days there at Brahmakumari guest house.

The organisation has a big hospital ( Global Hospital). They organised and executed this hospital for the local and the guests. However, One day, we went there. There a Psychiatry diagnosed me and told that I was a patient of panic disorder.

” But don’t worry, you would be cured of all panics after getting these medicines and can move anywhere in the world alone.” – He said.

So he prescribed some medicines. I gradually became a normal man. During my youth, I couldn’t travel alone or without any companion, but now at the age of above sixty, I am travelling alone from Durgapur to Mumbai by train or by air. No fear, no panic, no obsession.

But only medicine is not sufficient. For our sound mind we should have an organised lifestyle and scientific food habits. This is must .

How To Avoid Depression?

Depression is a mental illness. Therefore, it’s not a physical ailment. Physical ailments are natural. We have to face seasonal fever, blood dysentery, fissures, sugar, hypertension, gall bladder stone and so on. On the other side, depression is not a physical ailment. So read here, how to avoid depression?

But mental disorders come stealthily and silently. So mental illness and stress, also depression are the inner problem of a man. So, how to overcome this fatal disease? 

I shall try to talk with the precautions when one has to face depression. 

Read more: Mind –1. Brain and Depression, 2. http://Depression insurgency and Kashmir

# Be Careful/ how to Avoid Depression – 

What Not To Do:  Mind – Brain and Depression

  • Do not seek solace in Alcohol or Drugs 
  • Do not isolate yourself from family and friends
  • Avoid excessive and unhealthy eating
  • Do not dwell on past mistakes
  • Don’t go to bed at late night.
  • Don’t take sugar 

Be Alert: 

  • When fluctuations in the horme level 
  • If you have genetical history
  • During some medical condition
  • Post-surgery reaction
  • Be cool and calm in a fix 
  • When you not in Pure and positive thinking

” Yoga allows you to find on inner peace that is not ruffled and riled by the endless stress and struggles of life”. 


Firstly, Practising Yoga regularly can kick off stress and depression. Therefore, It’s one of the best methods to lighten our grave mood and keep depression at bay. 

Secondly, Yoga poses increase blood circulation to the brain and enable the production of mood-elevating hormones. 

Thirdly, the practice of yoga doesn’t have any adverse side – effects, which make it a better option as compared to other medications for depression. 

 # Therefore, Some effective yoga poses to fight against depression are mentioned here 🙁 how to avoid depression?

  1. Balasana ( Child Pose )
  2. Setubandhasana ( Bridge Pose ) 
  3. Urdhva Mukha Svanasana ( Upward facing Dog Pose )
  4. Adho Mukha Svanasana ( Downward-facing Dog Pose ) 
  5. Halasana ( Plow Pose ) 
  6. Uttanasana ( Standing Forward Fold Pose ) 
  7. Savasana ( Corpse Pose ) 

Therefore, how to avoid depression?

Surely, we should practice regularly the Asana, Mudra, and Pranayama. The main yoga we have to practice regularly are as follows:

  1. The Sun Salutation 
  2. The Shoulder Stand ( Sarvangasana )
  3. Alternate Breathing( Anuloma – Viloma )
  4. Bumble Bee Breathing  5. Plain Breathing practice only for 2 minutes
How to avoid depression? / image: kalpatarurudra.org/jpg Read more : Practice 7 Asana for Immunity

Read also: 1. RABINDRANATH TAGORE IN DEPRESSION 2. Mind – Brain and Depression

Just sit down straight and take breathing slowly to the fullest. Hold it for a little and then slowly breathe out. However, It’s very important to keep our mind, body, heart and lungs normal and fit.

Moreover, regular practise of this breathing intake and breathing out, two times a day might enhance your mental strength. Ultimately, it removes all kinds of negativity. Not only that, but it could have been a scientific way to avoid depression.

5. Finally, keep your blood sugar levels in check. 6. Cut back on TV. Do not continuously sit on before TV set. Because it can hamper your blood flow.

6. Pour Yourself A Drink / Go Out For Drinks :

Yes, too much alcohol isn’t ever going to do your body – or brain – much good. But just as it has been to be good for your heart in smaller doses. Besides, alcohol also appears to be good for your brain – when consumed responsibly.

In a study conducted at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, in Italy, researchers found that 29% of people over the age of 65 who rarely drank during their lives experienced some form of mental impairment as they got older, compared with just 19 per cent of people who drank a moderate amount of alcohol.

6. Sixthly, eat like a pioneer: That means natural heart, grains, fresh fruits and produce, and as few processed foods as possible.

When we are discussing how to avoid depression, it is a must to follow the actual food intake. Why?

Because in a study of almost 4,000 children, published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, researchers found that kids who were given a”Traditional” or ” “Health – Conscious” diet consistently scored better on IQ tests than children fed a diet high in processed foods.

Although the human brain grows at its fastest during the first three years of life, researchers say a clean, healthy diet is just as important after the brain is fully developed.


” Am I depressed ?” We can’t ask ourselves ? Indeed, we can’t understand consciously when we are in depression. Truly, it comes to us very stealthily. Very silently and stealthily this disease makes it room in the mind of modern people. 

With more than 350 million people are suffering from depression worldwide. So government and ngos should take stringent steps to address the seriousness of depression. If it’s not, the illness may soon become the next global epidemic. 

India has 1,500 depression people per 100,000 inhabitants. So, approximately 5 percent of the global population or 1 in every 20 people across the world is depressed. 

The United States has the largest number of depressed people worldwide per 100,000 inhabitants at 1,454. India ranks a close fifth, with 1,400 depressed people per 100,000 inhabitants. 

It is not uncommon of us to come across a family member or friend who avoids social gatherings or occasion or seem reluctant during social interactions. 

Most of us tend to take such episodes lightly, brushing them off as rudeness or introverted behaviour. So depression is a topic that is rarely acknowledged, and seldom spoken of openly. This has resulted in depression becoming a global mental health issue that needs urgent recognition and intervention. 

It’s fact that compared to other physical diseases, the diagnosis and treatment of depression is difficult to come by, and tackling it becomes even difficult.

Unlike physical diseases such as Cancer, Hypertension,Diabates – which high global numbers, the awareness about depression and its effects and treatment options are really low. Therefore, despite depression being completely curable, the number of people suffering from it remains so high. 


Eminent Doctor and Professor of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Dr. Rajesh Sagar expressed his views: 

  ” The global scenario for patients suffering from depression remains a matter of concern. People are yet to recognise depression as a serious mental health issues which has widespread psychological and biological implications. 

 The problems in engaging in conversations about depression and accessing proper counselling or medication have resulted in a large number of people suffering from depression but being unable to talk about it. 


     Countries with solvent financial status are not necessarily the happiest in terms of mental health and its diagnosis. The US, for all its medical advancement has the maximum per capita cases of depression, since people there have better access to mental healthcare systems than countries which are more conservative about such issues. 

As a result, globally depression has been known to render more than 250 million people as disabled in the age group of 40 to 60. 

Untreated symptoms of depression can cause difficulties in leading a normal life. Especially as a person gets old. With depression, lack of self- confidence, trauma and prolonged period of sadness sets in, affecting day -to- day activities of life.


Generally depressed people who undergo prolonged periods of sadness and anxiety gradually became unproductive at work. They don’t speak to the nearest one about their condition. 

Naturally they are fighting within themselves for a long time. But it’s only after proper diagnosis that depression can be confirmed and due treatment can start. 


There are so many causes behind depression. WHO is firm in providing multiple possible causes for the occurrence of depression? 

   Research findings from expert psychiatrists worldwide have been able to identify negative parental influence, hereditary presence of depressive genes and socio- economic conditions as the most commonly identified cases of depression. 


Negative parental influence such as peer pressure, alcohol abuse by parents, dysfunctional relationship with parents can cause depression to set in very early and lasts for a lifetime. 

Parental influence of shapes up how a kid ends up leading a life. A parental influence of negativity and fear makes children prone to depressive tendencies. It might cripple their chances of leading a normal life. 

In USA, 6,000 of 20,000 surveyed people cited negative parental influence as the core source for them developing depression. Factors such as excessive migration, domestic abuse and underage marriage are some of the contributing factors towards the development of depression. 

Next we would try to discuss about the depression in India. 

To be continued 

Vidyasagar The Renaissance – Man

Posted on.  by Sushil Rudra

We remember Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, the Renaissance- man for his contributions in the society and in educational arena of Bengal. Today, we are remembering him in his birthday. Obviously, he was a modern man in nineteenth century Bengal as well as India .

He was born in Birsingha village in Hooghly district of Bengal on September 26, 1820. He is famous by the name of “Vidyasagar”. Because he was an eminent intellectual and scholar of contemporary India.

Eshwar Chandra Vidyasagar belonged to a Hindu Brahmin family. He was born to Thakurdas Bandyopadhyay and Bhagavati Devi. He was not privileged enough to have a gas lamp at his home and the desire to acquire knowledge made him study under the streetlights.

Through scholarships, he made a quick succession and joined Sanskrit College in Calcutta and graduated in the year 1841.

It took him 12 years to graduate from college. He was also pursuing his part-time job while studying at the same time. He had a qualification in Sanskrit Grammar, literature, dialectics, Vedanta, smriti, and astronomy.

In true sense of the term, Vidyasagar was a renaissance -man. He was also a social reformer, philosopher, philanthropist, and educationalist with a modern vision. He was a person with high morality, honest character, truthfulness, social reform, unselfishness, and liberalism.


Contributions of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar:

He contributed to the removal of social justice, upliftment of women, allowing widow remarriage, and advocating against polygamy.

He played a major part in being appointed as the Head Pandit of Fort William College on December 29, 1841. During that time he felt the need to publish books. Because there’s available no books for learning Bengali and other subjects.

Ultimately, he started writing books for this purpose. For learning Bengali language, he wrote ” Barnaporichay ” which is ever remembered. We have read this book in our childhood. This was the only book in our childhood to be read for learning the Bengali alphabet, punctuation, meaning and so on.
Vidyasagar The Renaissance -Man / image: www.kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

The Pioneer Of English Education:

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, the Renaissance- man opened schools for girls. He brought significant reforms in the education sector. He tried to bring justice and equality for women through education.

Besides, hee brought social reforms to change the orthodox Hindu society from within.

He was also a great intellectual activist of the 19th century. And he installed socio-religious reforms into modern history.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar established a number of model schools in Hooghly, Midnapore, Burdwan, and Nadia.

He introduced monthly exams instead of annual ones. Moreover, he introduced supervision of schools and changed the syllabus.

He brought the study of English, Western Science, and Mathematics into the syllabus.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar also started the acceptance of tuition fees and admission fees .Moreover, he made Sunday a weekly holidjay.

However, Eshwar Chandra Vidyasagar entirely reshaped the education system in Bengal.

Books He Authored:

Besides, Vidyasagar authored some books. His works involved Betaal Panchavinsati (1847), Banglar Itihaas (1848), Jivancharita (1849), Shakuntala (1854), Mahabharata (1860), Seetar Vanavas (1860), Bhrantivilaas (1869), Oti Alpa Hoilo (1873), Aabaar Oti Alpa Hoilo (1873), Brajavilaas (1884), Ratnopariksha (1886).

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar’s did some social reforms. It included ‘Bidhobabivah’ on the widow’s right to remarry (1855), ‘Bahubivah’ on the banning of polygamy (1871), and Balyabivah on the flaws of child marriage.

#Bengali language, 19th century Bengal, Bengal, Bengal Renaissance, Eshwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Renaissance

Read also: 1. Indian Literature And Women Writing 2. Rabindranath as a Singer, Musician & Lyricist 3. KIDS AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA VANI PROCHAR SAMITY

Is India Already A Hindu Rashtra?

 Sushil Rudra

In a lecture on “India and secularism,” eminent economist, statesman, and veteran political leader Dr Subramannam Swami remarked that India is already a Hindu Rashtra. How far true it is? Is India already a Hindu Rastra?

However, more than 80% of a citizen of India is Hindu. Is this not sufficient for a Hindu Rastra? India is a place where Hindu deities are worshipped. Our culture is also the same.

But as the people of other sects live here with the same status, we call it a Hindu Rastra. 20% of people aré minorities. Despite its Democratic form of government, India is already a Hindu Rastra – some people think so.


Nowadays some people of both Hindu and Muslim communities and religious sections are violating the Indian Constitution.

Even political leaders are making nuisance with their hate speeches during the election campaigns.

The authority did not take any steps or action against the leaders of political parties who are making hate speeches.

Unless it doesn’t disqualify a person from contesting the election for making hate speeches, there will be no effective check on this sensitive issue.”

Dr Madhav Godbole said the above comment. We all know that Mr Godbole resigned as Union home secretary in the aftermath of the Babri Masjid demolition.

Dr Godbole has written 26 books on Indian policy issues since he bid farewell to the Indian Administrative Service in 1993.

However, he has just published his latest book ” India – A Federal Union of States – Fault Lines, Challenges and Opportunities ” (Konark Publishers).

“I fail to understand why the Supreme Court has not given a direction so far to operationalise secularism,” Dr Godbole tells it.

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In his book, he says that though secularism is part of the basic structure of the Constitution. But here political parties do not follow secularism.

Moreover, not a political party maintain lowfully secularism. It is out of proper operation. What threat does it pose to India and Indian federalism?

All those advocating a Hindu Rashtra must realise that Rashtra is a much larger concept. And a Hindu Rashtra cannot consist of Hindus alone. It is a combination of different religions that constitute India.

Secondly, successive governments did really not perpetrate to secularism over the years.

Despite the Supreme Court ruling that it is part of the basic structure of the Constitution. But the government did not thoroughly operationalise Secularism.

Dr Godbole further says that he fails to understand why the Supreme Court did not give a direction so far to operationalise secularism.

Meanwhile, the Supreme Court has declared several rights as fundamental rights. Even those which are not mentioned in the Constitution, like the right to privacy, right to information also granted .

Supreme Court recognised 8-10 rights. Supreme Court gave recognition of it as a fundamental right. Though these were not in the Constitution.

Similarly, why can’t the Supreme Court say that secularism is part of the basic structure of the Constitution? And therefore, the Supreme authority should take steps to operationalise it?

Thirdly, the minimum that a government can do is to bring a law. Therefore, it says that a candidate should get 50% plus 1 vote to be declared a winner in an election.

S/he will then represent the majority in the real sense of the term. Therefore, her/his appeal will not be limited to her/his caste, creed, community, religion, etc.

The candidate will have to appeal to various sections of society and that will be a real representative democracy.

Fourthly, the Government or Supreme Authority hardly took any action against leaders of political parties who are making hate speeches.

Unless the law disqualifies a person from contesting the election for making hate speeches, there will be no effective check on this sensitive issue. (India is already a Hindu Rastra.)

It needs statesmanship amongst all political parties. They should come together and make a Constitutional amendment.

Besides, they can amend the Representation of People Act to debar the mixing of religion and politics.

For example, why should political parties have flags which are so common to their religions? Because it is beyond secularism.

Therefore, the Election Commission of India should not provide permit such flags of some regional parties.

These is a very large, complex, complicated and sensitive subject. But it will require real statesmanship.

Constitution, Harmony, Hindu, India ,Politics

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11th September:A Remarkable Day

Dr Sushil Rudra

We are going to celebrate 11th September: a remarkable day in the history of India. This is the red-letter day in human civilisation. This is the day when Swami Vivekananda introduced India to the world.

Why does 11th September: a remarkable day? Because Swami Vivekananda represented India and Hinduism at the Parliament of the World’s Religions(1893) on this very day.

On 11th September,1893 Swami Vivekananda became acquainted with the World as an Indian Hindu monk and delivered his eloquent speech before the Western audience.

We all remembered Swami Vivekananda’s iconic speech at the World Religion Conference in Chicago . It is on September 11, 1893 when Swami Vivekanand gave the speech full of wisdom.

For those unversed, it is in this iconic Chicago Speech that Vivekananda addressed the audience as ‘Brothers and Sisters of America’.

In the speech (11th September: a remarkable day ) that blew everyone’s mind. Swami Vivekananda had mentioned the basic yet most important things that one should follow in life.

These things included being patriotic, loving all religions, analysing religion, being acquainted with science, knowing importance and necessity of rituals, being aware of roots of Hinduism.

Moreover, Swami Ji tried to focus on the goal of science. He cared about the cause of the downfall of India and was against religious conversations.

In his lecture, he addressed the American public as “Sisters and Brothers of America”, he then continued –

It fills my heart with joy unspeakable to rise in response to the warm and cordial welcome which you have given us.

I thank you in the name of the most ancient order of monks in the world. I thank you in the name of the mother of religions; and I thank you in the name of the millions and millions of Hindu people of all classes and sects.

My thanks, also, to some of the speakers on this platform who, referring to the delegates from the Orient, have told you that these men from far-off nations may well claim the honour of bearing to different lands the idea of toleration.

I am proud to belong to a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance.

We believe not only in universal toleration, but we accept all religions as true.

I am proud to belong to a nation which has sheltered the persecuted and the refugees of all religions and all nations of the earth.

I am proud to tell you that we have gathered in our bosom the purest remnant of the Israelites. They came to southern India and took refuge with us in the very year in which their holy temple was shattered to pieces by Roman tyranny.

I am proud to belong to the religion which has sheltered and is still fostering the remnant of the grand Zoroastrian nation.

I will quote to you, brethren, a few lines from a hymn which I remember to have repeated from my earliest boyhood, which is every day repeated by millions of human beings:

‘As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take through different tendencies.

Various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee.’

The present convention, which is one of the most august assemblies ever held, is in itself a vindication, a declaration to the world, of the wonderful doctrine preached in the Gita:

‘Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths which in the end lead to Me.’

Sectarianism, bigotry, and its horrible descendant, fanaticism, have long possessed this beautiful earth.

However, they have filled the earth with violence, drenched it often and often with human blood, destroyed civilization, and sent whole nations to despair.

Had it not been for these horrible demons, human society would be far more advanced than it is now.

But their time comes and I fervently hope that the bell that tolled this morning in honour of this convention may be the death-knell of all fanaticism, of all persecutions.

It would be with the sword or with the pen, and of all uncharitable feelings between persons wending their way to the same goal.”

Read also:1. Swami Vivekananda’s Inspired Talks 2. Why Should We Follow Swami Vivekananda’s views! 3. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA ON NARADA-BHAKTI-SUTRA

A memorable day , Chicago parliament of World’s Religions, Hinduism, Indian Religion, Swami Vivekananda


It was in the year of 1897. Krishnaswami Ayer, Head Master of Town High School was taking classes of the students of junior section. Ramanujan was a student of this class. Krishnaswami was a grave-natured man. Students used to fear him very much. The HM looked around the class and asked the students, ‘ Do you know if you divide a number by the same number, the quotient will be”1″? 

Read more: Why Should We Follow Swami Vivekananda’s views !

He noticed that the students couldn’t understand his question. So again he asked the same question with an instance. 

” Suppose you have five mangoes and you have to distribute it to your five friends equally. So they will get 1 mango each. If you divide 5 mangoes by 5 ( friends ), then the result will be 1? Isn’t it? 

Again The HM follow the faces of the students. Mr. Krishnaswami now felt relax and delight thinking that the students now understood the mathematics.

Meanwhile, a student from the back bench lift his hands up to ask something. The HM became astonished. Generally students don’t ask him about any questions. 

  ” What do you want to say, boy “? The HM Krishnaswami asked the boy. 

   The boy hesitatingly replied:   ” Sir, can I ask a question? 

 ” Yes,” The HM told. 

“Sir, if zero is divided by zero, the quotient will be 1 or not? 

Having heard this question the HM became stunned. He couldn’t believe that a question might come from a student. Thought – what a difficult question it’s! 

   For that moment, HM told him to sit down. But marked the face of the student. He had no answer that very moment. He became defeated by a little boy. 

From then Mr. Krishnaswami tried to search for his whereabouts. Gradually he came to know all about him ( the boy ) and his family. 

His father was a Brahmin by caste and he was very poor. His son’s name is Ramanujan. This poor Brahmin was an accountant in a clothing shop. His mother ‘s name is Kamalatammal who earned very little by singing at the temple. 

Ramanujan was a born- talented. Though he couldn’t complete his institutional education. He had failed to secure FA degree of the college due to his only interest in Mathematics. He was not interested in other subjects and that’s why he failed to secure pass marks in other subjects. His only interest was in mathematics. 

He admitted to two different colleges. After passing articulation he got admission in Government Kumbhukonam college. He got stipend from this college.

Achievement Of Ramanujan :

Ramanujan compiled around 3,900 results consisting of equations and identities. One of his most treasured findings was his infinite series for pi. So this series forms the basis of many algorithms we use today. Moreover, he gave several fascinating formulas to calculate the digits of pi in many unconventional ways.

In addition, he discovered a long list of new ideas to solve many challenging mathematical problems, which gave a significant impetus to the development of game theory. His contribution to game theory is purely based on intuition and natural talent and remains unrivalled to this day.

However, he elaborately described the mock theta function. It is a concept in the realm of modular form in mathematics. Considered an enigma till sometime back, it is now recognized as holomorphic parts of mass forms.

One of Ramanujan’s notebooks was discovered by George Andrews in 1976 in the library at Trinity College. Later the contents of this notebook were published as a book.

1729 is known as the Ramanujan number. It is the sum of the cubes of two numbers 10 and 9. For instance, 1729 results from adding 1000 (the cube of 10) and 729 (the cube of 9). Therefore, this is the smallest number that can be expressed in two different ways as it is the sum of these two cubes. Interestingly, 1729 is a natural number following 1728 and preceding 1730.

Therefore, Ramanujan’s contributions stretch across mathematics fields, including complex analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions.

Besides, Ramanujan’s other notable contributions include hypergeometric series, the Riemann series, the elliptic integrals, the theory of divergent series, and the functional equations of the zeta function.

Teacher’s Day celebration

 Sushil Rudra

Today, 5th September is a special day for the teacher. We convey our regards to our teachers. Generally students arrange this Teacher’s Day celebration every year. And really it’s a grand festival in the educational institution.

For a long long time, I have been enjoying this lovely ceremony in my college. It’s about three and half decades. But last two years it has been continued online. Though today is Sunday, despite students have been arranged and previously told us to join in Google meet.

They meticulously started and finished this program ‘ Teacher’s Day celebration’. We enjoyed it very much. They participated in music, dance, recitation and speech and very perfectly they performed it.

In fact, we have learned from them. Sometimes I think I have a long way to learn many things in this knowledgeable world from anywhere, from anybody, may it be a daily labour, or an unknown person. Sometimes I used to learn from my daughter. She is expert in digital world. But I am a novice.

A new generation has a different outlook on life and the world. So we learn from my students and others people. Might be they’re also our teacher. Are they not?

In fact, knowledge is within us. Teacher only can Ignite this. He is the torch bearer. His main duty is to remove the ignorance and to open the door of the heart. 

“Aggano timirandhosya Jnanjono Shalakaya Chokhsur urmilitang Jeno tosmai Shree gurabenamah.

Guru or Teacher is our God. He always stand by us in every situation of our lives. They inspire us, help us to go forward and achieve any goal. Vidyasagar, Rabindranath, Swami Vivekananda, Dr. Sarbepalli Radhakrisnan, Rishi Aurobindo – they’re all our great teacher.


Today is ex – president of India, Dr. Radhakrisnan’s birthday. His birthday is celebrated as Teacher’s Day in India.

He was a great teacher, distinguished philosopher, eminent statesman. He was also a great writer. He wrote many books on philosophy.

Dr. Radhakrisnan was a brilliant student. He studied in the Madras University. Served as a Professor in Presidency College and Madras University.

With the request of Vice-Chancellor Ashutosh Mukhopaddhay, he joined Calcutta University and hold the post of fifth Jorge. He became Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University and Banaras Hindu University.

He became two times Vice President of India and One time President of India. He was given Bharat Ratna in the year of 1954.

During his Vice Presidentship, his students came to celebrate his birthday. He then advised them to celebrate his birthday as Teacher’s Day.

From then 5th September is commemorated as Teacher’s Day. Hence, It’s a memorable day or event for the teachers and students as well. Teacher’s Day

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Hazara in Afghanistan


Who are Hazara in Afghanistan? Are they followers of Shia, Sunni or others religious faith? In which parts of Afghanistan they used to live? The relations between others Afghanistan and Hazara community. Taliban impact on them?

Asia subcontinent is now in a harsh and burning conditions due to flee of US military troops and their control over Afghanistan after two decades and also dramatic captured by rival millitant group, Taliban. They captured almost all the Afghanistan provincial territories except northern part of this country. Taliban still failed to capture this territory due to its surrounding demography.

   But there is portion of Afghanistan, which is in central Afghanistan, the people of this territory are not supporters of Taliban. They are mostly Shias. Perhaps some of them  were once Buddhists and due to invasion of Muslim invaders, they were being converted into Muslim. They’re “Hazara” community.

  The Hazaraz are a Persian -speaking ethnic group native to, and primarily residing in, the mountainous region of Hazarajat, in central Afghanistan. There are about 38-40 lakh Hazaraz estimated to be living in Afghanistan. This makes them form about 10-12 percent of Afghanistan’s 3.8 crore population.

  Hazaraz consider themselves the descendants of great medieval-age Mongolian emperor Genghis Khan who better known in India as Changez Khan and whose army overran China, Central Asia and Afghanistan in the 13th century. During their rule in the 1990 s, the Taliban had declared Hazaraz as non – Muslim (Kafirs) and ordered their massacre.

  The Hazara were largely autonomous until the 1890s. They belong to Shia . Perhaps very few are Sunni. Their forceful and brutal integration into the nascent Afghan state by Abd al- Rahaman Khan’s predominately Pashtun armies showed the seeds of lasting enmity between the Shii Hazara and the Sunni Pashtuns on both religious and ethnic grounds. Since then the Hazara have faced significant marginalization, persecution, and displacement, perhaps most zealously by the Taliban in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

  Hazaraz are members of an Afghan ethnic minority group, whereas the Pashtuns are a united group of tribes composing the largest ethnic group of Afghanistan. Mostly Pashtuns are of Sunni Muslims. They do not have a distinct look like the Hazara, because they have middle Eastern features. This is the reason why Pashtun discriminate the Hazara community. Hazaraz look like Chinese people.

  Hazaraz are the weakest and poorest race in Afghanistan. That’s why, they are easily subjected to be killed, insulted, and tortured by Pashtuns. This minority Shia Hazaras speak a dialect of Dari( Persian Dialect) called Hazaragi. Though there is little differences between Dari and Hazaragi. The main difference is its accents and Hazaragi’s greater array of Turkic and Mongolic loanwords.

     Hence, they are known as Hazarajat. So the name of central Afghanistan is Hazaristan. Now many Hazara have pursued higher education and have become leaders. They enrolled in the army of previous Afghan government and many furnished top government positions. A number of ministers and governors were Hazara, including Sima Samar, Habiba Sarabi, Sarwar Danish, Stayed Hussein Anwari etc. Even a female from Hazara community, Azra Jafari became the first female Mayor in Afghanistan ( Daykundi Province).

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