WHY IS MANGO THE KING OF FRUITS?

photo of man standing in front of mango tree with his arms crossed
Photo by Chokniti Khongchum on /Pexels.com/ Why is mango the king of the fruits?

Mango is Our National fruit. It’s a delicious fruit that we generally call the Mango, the king of the fruits.

hanging green fruits
Why is Mango the king of the fruits? Tree , Fruits and Leaves / Photo by Quang Nguyen Vinh on Pexels.com

My Childhood Experiences: Why is mango the king of fruits?

I am very much fond of mango. In my childhood days, I used to go to the mango garden near my house to collect it. Although we have a big mango garden and a jackle fruit garden as well. Now it has been sold to the adjacent neighbours for housing purposes. My elder brother disposes of this big mango garden after my father’s death.

yellow sliced fruit on white plate
Mango Dish – the king of the fruits / Photo by Riki Risnandar on Pexels.com

Still, I can recollect those days. When Kal Baishakhi ( cats and dogs rain in the first Bengali month in the calendar) took place in Bengal, the thunderstorms unplugged the mangoes from its branches. The adjacent Muslim cultivators used to collect those fruits and brought those mangoes with their Bamboo maid Jhuri ( containers) keeping over their head to our village home.

How diligence and loyal they were! I’m speaking of the days of the early sixties. I was then 5 to 6 years old. It’s like a hill of mangoes. Generally, these were Phoghli, Rani Pasand, Kanchamithe and so on.

That night and also the next few days my grandmother, mother, aunt, and 2 maidservants had to be busy cutting down into pieces and washing multi time keeping all those in some big containers.

They are usually boiled in a big Kadai. After that when it cools, the stones were separated from the boiled mango pieces. Generally, the stones inside of mango are a bitter taste. So stones were not used in making Amsatta.

What is Aamsatta?

The boiled mango pieces being pasted finely and mixed with jaggery, a pinch of salt, and pepper, fried spices like jeera dust, Gommorich, elaichi etc to be boiled in a Kadai and after 15 to 20 minutes it was kept in big Kangsha Thalies. Everyday all these chillies were kept under the sun rays on the roofs of 2nd floor of our home. This is called in Bengali” Aamsatwa”.

It’s delicious when it comes out after frying from the sun heat. While it’s under the sky, every dishes and utensils were kept covering with a clean white clothes to protect it from any birds or other creatures.

Mango

Immature Black Mango fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Sapindales
Family:Anacardiaceae
Genus:Mangifera
L.
Species
More than 50 species; see listing
Mango The King of the Fruits/ kalpatarurudra.org

Mangoes belong to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is indigenous to the Indian Subcontinent especially IndiaPakistanBangladesh, and Southeast Asia.[1] 

Therefore, it is cultivated in many tropical regions and distributed widely in the world, mango is one of the most extensively exploited fruits for food, juice, flavor, fragrance and color, making it a common ingredient in new functional foods often called superfruits.

Its leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings and religious ceremonies. I can remember that we made the ring and decorated my elder brother’s shop with the chain of mango leaves. Even its branches with leaves are used in Mangal Ghat. Its also the national fruit of India.

The Table of Contents:

1 Etymology2 Description3 Cultivation and uses3.1 Diseases3.2 Food3.3 In Indian cuisine3.4 Elsewhere3.5 Nutrient and antioxidant properties4 Production and consumption5 Cultivars6 Species7 See also8 Notes9 References10 External links
Table of Contents/ Mango the King of the Fruits / kalpatarurudra.org

Etymology

The name mango is ultimately either from the Kodagu mange, the Malayalam manga, or the Tamil mangai, and was loaned into Portuguese in the early 16th century as manga, from where the Portuguese passed into English. The ending in -o appears in English and is of unclear origin.[2]

Description

green mango fruits hanging on tree
Mango the king of the Fruits/ Photo by Drift Shutterbug on Pexels.com

Mango flowers

Mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) reach 35-40 m in height, with a crown radius of 10 m. The tree is long-lived with some specimens known to be over 300 years old and still fruiting.

In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 20 ft, and the profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots also send down many anchor roots which penetrate for several feet.

The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15-35 cm long and 6-16 cm broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark glossy red, then dark green as they mature.

The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10-40 cm long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5-10 mm long, with a mild sweet odour suggestive of the lily of the valley. The fruit takes from three to six months to ripen.

assorted color mangoes
Mango the king of the fruits/Photo by Marco Antonio Victorino on Pexels.com

The Ripe Fruits

The ripe fruit is variable in size and color, and may be yellow, orange, red or green when ripe, depending on the cultivar. When ripe, the unpeeled fruit gives off a distinctive resinous sweet smell. In its center is a single flat oblong seed that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, depending on the cultivar. Inside the seed coat 1-2 mm thick is a thin lining covering a single embryo, 4-7 cm long, 3-4 cm wide, and 1 cm thick.

Mango fruits are often cut into a “hedgehog” style for eating (left). A cross section of a mango can be seen on the right

Cultivation and uses

Mango tree with flowers

Mangoes have been cultivated in the Indian subcontinent for thousands of years[3] and reached East Asia between the 5th-4th centuries BC.

By the 10th century AD, they were transported to East Africa[3] and subsequently introduced to BrazilWest Indies and Mexico, where the climate allows its appropriate growth.[3]

 The 14th-century Muslim traveller, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu.[4]

Mango is now cultivated as a fruit tree in frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates like that of the Indian subcontinent; nearly half of the world’s mangoes are cultivated in India alone.[5][6][7]

Other regions where mango is cultivated include NorthSouth and Central America, the Caribbean, south and central AfricaAustraliaChinaPakistan and Southeast Asia.

It is easily cultivated yielding more than 1,000 cultivars, ranging from the “turpentine mango” (named for its strong taste of turpentine, which according to the Oxford Companion to Food some varieties contain) to the huevos de toro (“eggs of the bull”, a euphemism for “bull‘s testicles“, referring to the shape and size).

Nicknamed “king of mangoes”, the Alphonso grown mainly in Devgad, Sindhudurg & Ratnagiri Districts of Maharashtra,India and favored there, is now popular in the United States.[8][9]

Though India is the largest producer of mangoes in the world, it accounts for less than one percent of the global mango trade.[10]

Dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties serve as ornamental plants and can be grown in containers.

Mango as a Food:

A ripe mango is sweet, with a unique taste that nevertheless varies from variety to variety. The texture of the flesh varies between cultivars, some having a soft, pulpy texture similar to an over-ripe plum, while others have firmer flesh like a cantaloupe or avocado. In some cultivars, the flesh has a fibrous texture.

A pack of amchur (or dry mango) powder in India.

In Indian cuisine

In western recipes of ‘Chutney’, ripe mangoes are often used, but chutney in the Indian subcontinent is usually made with sour, unripe mangoes and hot chilis or limes.

In India, ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers, desiccated, folded, and then cut. These bars,knownas aampapdi,’ amavat or halva in Hindi, are similar to dried guava fruit bars available in Colombia.

In many parts of India, people eat squeezed mango juice (called ras) on a variety of bread. This is part of the meal rather than a dessert. Unripe mangoes (which are extremely sour) are eaten with salt, and in regions where food is hotter, with salt and chili.

In Kerala, ripe mangoes are used in a dish called mambazha kaalan.

In Maharashtra,moramba (a kind of preserve, made from jaggery and mango) and aamrus (Pulp/Thick Juice made of mangoes, with a bit of sugar if needed and milk at times) are famous.

A spicy, sweet and sour semi-liquid side dish called meth-amba is made from unripe mango slices called Kairi, jaggery and fenugreek seeds. They can be enjoyed with poories and policies, like jam.

In India mango is used as pickle (aachar), amawatmurrabasukhawata & chatnior chutney.

crop unrecognizable person with jar of pickled zucchini
Mango Pickle / Photo by Ksenia Chernaya on Pexels.com

During the hot summer months, a cooling summer drink called panha (in Marathi) and panna (across north India) is made with raw mango. Mango lassi is made by adding mango pulp to the North Indian yoghurt drink lassi.

The fruit is also used in a variety of cereal products, in particular muesli and oat granola. Dried and powdered unripe mango is known as amchur (sometimes spelled amchoor) in India and ambi in Urdu. Amb is a Sindhiaamba a Marathi, and aam a Hindi/Urdu/Punjabi word for mango.

Elsewhere

In the Philippines, unripe mango is eaten with bagoong. Dried strips of sweet, ripe mango are also popular, with those from Cebu exported worldwide. Guimaras produces a delicious mango.

mango smoothie in clear glass topped with fresh sliced mango
Mango Lassi / Photo bmy Phạm Thành Đạt on Pexels.com

Freshly harvested mangoes and bananas at a fruit stand on the island of MauiHawaii

In Mexico, mango is used to make juicessmoothiesice creamfruit barsraspadosaguas frescaspies and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped in hot chili powder and salt or also as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations.

Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice as milkshakes. In Thailand and other South East Asian countries, sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut then served with sliced mango as a dessert.

In other parts of South-east Asia, mangoes are pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar.

In Taiwan, mango is a topping that can be added to shaved ice along with condensed milk.

The sweet bell pepper (capsicum) was once known as mango in parts of the United States.[11]

In Costa Rica and Guatemala, mango is either eaten green with salt, or ripe in various forms. Only in Costa Rica, ripe mangoes are called manga to differentiate them. In Guatemala, toasted and ground pumpkin seed with lime and salt are the norm when eating green mangoes.

Nutrient and antioxidant properties

Mango, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 70 kcal   270 kJ
Carbohydrates    17.00 g- Sugars  14.8 g- Dietary fiber  1.8 g  Fat0.27 gProtein.51 gVitamin A equiv.  38 μg 4%- β-carotene  445 μg 4%Thiamine (Vit. B1)  0.058 mg  4%Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.057 mg  4%Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.584 mg  4%Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.160 mg 3%Vitamin B6  0.134 mg10%Folate (Vit. B9)  14 μg 4%Vitamin C  27.7 mg46%Calcium  10 mg1%Iron  0.13 mg1%Magnesium  9 mg2% Phosphorus  11 mg2%Potassium  156 mg  3%Zinc  0.04 mg0%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Nutrients of Mango

Mango is rich in a variety of phytochemicals and nutrients that qualify it as a model “superfruit“, a term used to highlight potential health value of certain edible fruits. The fruit is high in prebiotic dietary fibervitamin Cpolyphenols and carotenoids.[12]

Mango contains essential vitamins and dietary minerals. The antioxidant vitamins AC and E comprise 25%, 76% and 9% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) in a 165 g serving. 

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), other B vitamins and essential nutrients such as potassiumcopper and 17 amino acids are at good levels.

Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants – carotenoids and polyphenols – and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

The edible mango peel has considerable value as a source of dietary fibre and antioxidant pigments.[13][14][15] Contained within the peel and pulp are rich contents of polysaccharides as fibre sources, especially starch and pectins.[16][17]

Antioxidants of the peel and pulp include carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-carotenelutein and alpha-carotene,[18] polyphenols[19][20] such as quercetinkaempferolgallic acidcaffeic acidcatechinstannins and so on.

The unique mango xanthone, mangiferin,[21] any of which may counteract free radicals in various disease mechanisms as revealed in preliminary research.[22]

 Contents of these phytochemicals and nutrients appear to vary across different mango species.[24] Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest content for which was beta-carotene accounting for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango species.[25]

 Peel and leaves also have significant content of polyphenols, including xanthones, mangiferin and gallic acid.[26]

The mango triterpene, lupeol[27] is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin cancers[28].[29][30]

 An extract of mango branch bark called Vimang, isolated by Cuban scientists, contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro[31] and on blood parameters of elderly humans.[32]

The pigment euxanthin, known as Indian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of cows fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 due to malnutrition of the cows and possible urushiol poisoning.

[33] One author[34] claims these descriptions of the pigment’s origin rely on a single anecdotal source and Indian legal records do not mention such a practice being outlawed.

Production and consumption: Why is mango the king of the fruits?

Mangoes account for approximately fifty percent of all tropical fruits produced worldwide. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations estimates worldwide production of mangoes at more than 23 million tons in 2001.[5] 

With 12 million tons produced annually (2002-3 data), India[6] accounts for almost half of the world production, followed by China (3 million tons), Pakistan (2.25 million tons), Mexico (1.5 million tons) and Thailand (1.35 million tons).

The aggregate production of 10 countries is responsible for roughly 80% of the entire world’s mango production.

Alphonso, Benishan or Benishaan (Banganpalli in Telugu and Tamil) and Kesar mango varieties are considered among the best mangoes in the Southern States.

Whereas Dussehri and Langda varieties are most popular in the Northern states of India. Commonly exported, the Alphonso cultivar is grown exclusively in the Konkan region of Maharashtra.

Alphonso is named after Afonso De Albuquerque who reputedly brought the drupe on his journeys to Goa. The locals took to calling this Aphoos in Konkani and in Maharashtra the pronunciation got further corrupted to Hapoos. This variety then was taken to the Konkan region of Maharashtra and other parts of India.

 Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states in the south, Gujarat in western India, and Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in the north are major producers of mangoes harvested especially to make spicy mango pickles having regional differences in taste.

In Pakistan the popular mangoes are the Sindhri and Chaunsa, besides other varieties like Langra, Anwar Ratoal and Malva.

The Sindhri mango is primarily produced in the province of Sindh and can measure up to half a foot in length. It is generally considered one of the best mangoes in the world.

Generally, once ripe, mangoes have an orange-yellow or reddish peel and are juicy for eating while those intended for export are often picked while under-ripe with green peels.

Although its flavour produces ethylene while ripening, unripened exported mangoes do not have the same juiciness or flavour as fresh fruit.

green mangoes and red apples
Green Mangoes from Philippine/Photo by Artem Beliaikin on Pexels.com

Mangoes are popular throughout Latin America. In Mexico, sliced mango is eaten with chili powder and/or salt. Street vendors sometimes sell whole mangoes on a stick, dipped in the chili-salt mixture.

In Indonesia and Thailand, green mango is sold by street vendors with sugar and salt and/or chili, or used in a sour salad called rujak or rojak in Malaysia and Singapore.

 Ayurveda considers ripe mango sweet and heating, balancing all three doshas (humors).It is also providing energy. Powdered raw mango is sometimes a condiment in various cuisines.

Like other drupaceous fruits, mangoes come in both freestone and clingstone varieties.

Area harvested of mangoes by country as of 2007[35]:WHY DO WE FACE DANDRUFF?: A SURVEY Q & A

  1. India : 2,143,000 hectares
  2. China : 445,000 hectares
  3. Thailand : 285,000 hectares
  4. Indonesia : 266,000 hectares
  5. Pakistan : 215,000 hectares
  6. Mexico : 200,000 hectares
  7. Philippines : 181,000 hectares
  8. Nigeria : 126,500 hectares
  9. Brazil : 89,800 hectares
  10. Guinea : 82,000 hectares
  11. Viet Nam : 52,000 hectares
  12. Bangladesh : 51,000 hectares
Top Ten Mangoes Producers — 2007
CountryProduction (Tonnes)Footnote
 India13501000
 People’s Republic of China3752000F
 Pakistan2250000F
 Mexico2050000F
 Thailand1800000F
 Indonesia1620000F
 Brazil1546000F
 Philippines975000F
 Nigeria734000F
 Vietnam370000F
 World33445279A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official, semi-official or estimates);
Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision
Mango the King of the Fruits

Cultivars

Many hundreds of named mango cultivars exist. In mango orchards, several cultivars are often intermixed to improve cross-pollination. Many desired cultivars are mono-embryonic and need to be propagated by grafting methods or else they will not be true-to-type.

A common (mono-embryonic) cultivar is Alphonso known in Asia under its original name, Hapoos. As it is extremely popular, even outside the Indian subcontinent, Alphonso is an important export product.

Cultivars excelling in one climate may fail to achieve elsewhere. For example, the cultivar Julie, a Jamaican favorite, and Alphonso have not been successfully grown in Florida.

The current world market is dominated by the cultivar Tommy Atkins, a seedling of Haden which first fruited in 1940 in southern Florida, USA. Despite being initially rejected commercially by Florida researchers[citation needed], Tommy Atkins is now a favorite worldwide.

80% of mangoes in UK supermarkets are Tommy Atkins. Despite its fibrous flesh and fair taste, growers worldwide have embraced the cultivar for its exceptional production and disease resistance, the shelf-life of its fruit, their transportability as well as size and appealing colour.

Moreover, Tommy Atkins is predominant in the USA as well. Although other cultivars, such Kent, Keit, the Haitian grown Madame Francis and the Mexican grown Champagne are widely available.

In urban areas of southern Florida, small gardens, or lack thereof, have fueled the desire for dwarf mango trees. The Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden has promoted “condo mangoes” which produce at a height below 2-2.5 m.

There is an Australian variety of mango known as R2E2, a name based on the orchard row location of the original plant.

Species

There are many species of mango, including:

Mangifera acutigemmaMangifera altissimaMangifera andamanicaMangifera austro-indicaMangifera austro-yunnanensisMangifera blommesteiniiMangifera bullataMangifera caesiaMangifera camptospermaMangifera campnospermoidesMangifera casturiMangifera collinaMangifera decandraMangifera dewildeiMangifera dongnaiensisMangifera flavaMangifera foetidaMangifera gedebeMangifera gracilipesMangifera griffithiiMangifera hiemalisMangifera indicaMangifera kemangaMangifera lalijiwaMangifera laurinaMangifera longipesMangifera macrocarpaMangifera magnificaMangifera mekongensisMangifera minutifoliaMangifera monandraMangifera nicobaricaMangifera odorataMangifera orophilaMangifera pajangMangifera paludosaMangifera parvifoliaMangifera pedicellataMangifera pentandraMangifera persiciformisMangifera quadrifidaMangifera rubropetalaMangifera rufocostataMangifera siamensisMangifera similisMangifera sumbawaensisMangifera superbaMangifera swintonioidesMangifera sylvaticaMangifera taipaMangifera torquendaMangifera transversalisMangifera zeylanica
Mango the king of the fruits

Notes and Reference:

  1. ^ Mango: botany and taxonomy, HorticultureWorld
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary mango, n. 1
  3. a b c Ensminger 1994: 1373
  4. ^ Watson, Andrew J. (1983). Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world: the diffusion of crops and farming techniques, 700-1100. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 72–3. ISBN 0-521-24711-X.
  5. a b Jedele S, Hau AM, von Oppen M. An analysis of the world market for mangoes and its importance for developing countries. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, 2003[1]
  6. a b India world’s largest producer of mangoes, Rediff India Abroad, April 21, 2004
  7. ^ Mad About mangoes: As exports to the U.S. resume, a juicy business opportunity ripens, India Knowledge@Wharton Network, June 14, 2007
  8. ^ Allen J. Mango mania in Portland, Oregon, New York Times, May 10, 2006
  9. ^ Black R. Plump it up. Sweet, juicy mangoes are at their peak, with seasonal varieties ripe for the picking, New York Daily News, May 13, 2007
  10. ^ USAID helps Indian mango farmers access new markets, USAID-India, May 3, 2006
  11. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary Definition.
  12. ^ Nutrient profile for mango, Nutritiondata.com
  13. ^ Mango peel extract shows functional food potential
  14. ^ Rocha Ribeiro SM, Queiroz JH, Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz ME, Campos FM, Pinheiro Sant’ana HM (Mar 2007). “Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp”. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 62 (1): 13–7. doi:10.1007/s11130-006-0035-3PMID 17243011. “However, the mango peel has properties similar to sumac or poison ivy, resulting in allergic rashes around the mouth, eyes, cheeks, and genitalia if the urushiol oil is spread. Washing the affected area five minutes after contact should prevent some of the symptoms. Symptoms can be swelling, formation of yellow sores, redness, and if unmaintained, may be subjected to bacterial infection.”.
  15. ^ Ajila CM, Prasada Rao UJ (Jan 2008). “Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract”. Food Chem Toxicol. 46 (1): 303–9. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.08.024PMID 17919803.
  16. ^ Iagher F, Reicher F, Ganter JL (Dec 2002). “Structural and rheological properties of polysaccharides from mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp“. Int J Biol Macromol. 31 (1-3): 9–17. doi:10.1016/S0141-8130(02)00044-2PMID 12559422.
  17. ^ Berardini N, Fezer R, Conrad J, Beifuss U, Carle R, Schieber A (Mar 2005). “Screening of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars for their contents of flavonol O- and xanthone C-glycosides, anthocyanins, and pectin”. J Agric Food Chem. 53 (5): 1563–70. doi:10.1021/jf0484069PMID 15740041.
  18. ^ Gouado I, Schweigert FJ, Ejoh RA, Tchouanguep MF, Camp JV (Oct 2007). “Systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed in three forms (juice, fresh and dry slice)”. Eur J Clin Nutr. 61 (10): 1180–8. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602841PMID 17637601.
  19. ^ Mahattanatawee K, Manthey JA, Luzio G, Talcott ST, Goodner K, Baldwin EA (Sep 2006). “Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits”. J Agric Food Chem. 54 (19): 7355–63. doi:10.1021/jf060566sPMID 16968105.
  20. ^ Singh UP, Singh DP, Singh M, et al (Mar 2004). “Characterization of phenolic compounds in some Indian mango cultivars”. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 55 (2): 163–9. doi:10.1080/09637480410001666441PMID 14985189.
  21. ^ Andreu GL, Delgado R, Velho JA, Curti C, Vercesi AE (Jul 2005). “Mangiferin, a natural occurring glucosyl xanthone, increases susceptibility of rat liver mitochondria to calcium-induced permeability transition”. Arch Biochem Biophys. 439 (2): 184–93. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2005.05.015PMID 15979560.
  22. ^ Percival SS, Talcott ST, Chin ST, Mallak AC, Lounds-Singleton A, Pettit-Moore J (01 May 2006). “Neoplastic transformation of BALB/3T3 cells and cell cycle of HL-60 cells are inhibited by mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice and mango juice extracts“. J Nutr. 136 (5): 1300–4. PMID 16614420.
  23. ^ Rodríguez J, Di Pierro D, Gioia M, et al (Sep 2006). “Effects of a natural extract from Mangifera indica L, and its active compound, mangiferin, on energy state and lipid peroxidation of red blood cells”. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1760 (9): 1333–42. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2006.04.005PMID 16860486.
  24. ^ Rocha Ribeiro SM, Queiroz JH, Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz ME, Campos FM, Pinheiro Sant’ana HM (Mar 2007). “Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp”. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 62 (1): 13–7. doi:10.1007/s11130-006-0035-3PMID 17243011.
  25. ^ Chen JP, Tai CY, Chen BH (Oct 2004). “Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.)”. J Chromatogr A. 1054 (1-2): 261–8. PMID 15553152.
  26. ^ Barreto JC, Trevisan MT, Hull WE, et al (Jul 2008). “Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.)”. J Agric Food Chem. 56 (14): 5599–610. doi:10.1021/jf800738rPMID 18558692.
  27. ^ Chaturvedi PK, Bhui K, Shukla Y (May 2008). “Lupeol: connotations for chemoprevention”. Cancer Lett. 263 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.01.047PMID 18359153.
  28. ^ Prasad S, Kalra N, Singh M, Shukla Y (Mar 2008). “Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice”. Asian J Androl. 10 (2): 313–8. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7262.2008.00313.xPMID 18097535.
  29. ^ Nigam N, Prasad S, Shukla Y (Nov 2007). “Preventive effects of lupeol on DMBA induced DNA alkylation damage in mouse skin”. Food Chem Toxicol. 45 (11): 2331–5. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.06.002PMID 17637493.
  30. ^ Saleem M, Afaq F, Adhami VM, Mukhtar H (Jul 2004). “Lupeol modulates NF-kappaB and PI3K/Akt pathways and inhibits skin cancer in CD-1 mice”. Oncogene 23 (30): 5203–14. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207641PMID 15122342.
  31. ^ Rodeiro I, Cancino L, González JE, et al (Oct 2006). “Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang), a new natural product with antioxidant activity”. Food Chem Toxicol. 44 (10): 1707–13. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2006.05.009PMID 16857303.
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  33. ^ History of Indian yellow, Pigments Through the Ages
  34. ^ Finlay, Victoria (2003). Color : A Natural History of the Palette. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6.
  35. ^ http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor

References

  • Ensminger, Audrey H.; Ensminger, Marion E. (1994). Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia. CRC Press. pp. 1373. ISBN 0849389801.
  • Ensminger, Audrey H.; et al. (1995). The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods & Nutrition. CRC Press. pp. 651. ISBN 0849344557.

Wikipedia

CategoriesMangifera | Fruits originating in Asia | Tropical fruit | Medicinal plants | Tropical agriculture | Tamil words and phrases | National symbols of India 

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