Why is Mango the King of Fruits?

Dr. Sushil Rudra

photo of man standing in front of mango tree with his arms crossed
Photo by Chokniti Khongchum on / Why is mango the king of the fruits?

Mango is Our National fruit. It’s a delicious fruit that we generally call the Mango, the king of the fruits.

hanging green fruits
Why is Mango the king of the fruits? Tree , Fruits and Leaves / Photo by Quang Nguyen Vinh on

My Childhood Experiences: Why is mango the king of fruits?

I am very much fond of mango. In my childhood days, I used to go to the mango garden near my house to collect it. Although we have a big mango garden and a jackle fruit garden as well. Now it has been sold to the adjacent neighbours for housing purposes. My elder brother disposes of this big mango garden after my father’s death.

yellow sliced fruit on white plate
Mango Dish – the king of the fruits / Photo by Riki Risnandar on

Still, I can recollect those days. When Kal Baishakhi ( cats and dogs rain in the first Bengali month in the calendar) took place in Bengal, the thunderstorms unplugged the mangoes from its branches. The adjacent Muslim cultivators used to collect those fruits and brought those mangoes with their Bamboo maid Jhuri ( containers) keeping over their head to our village home.

How diligence and loyal they were! I’m speaking of the days of the early sixties. I was then 5 to 6 years old. It’s like a hill of mangoes. Generally, these were Phoghli, Rani Pasand, Kanchamithe and so on.

That night and also the next few days my grandmother, mother, aunt, and 2 maidservants had to be busy cutting down into pieces and washing multi time keeping all those in some big containers.

They are usually boiled in a big Kadai. After that when it cools, the stones were separated from the boiled mango pieces. Generally, the stones inside of mango are a bitter taste. So stones were not used in making Amsatta.

MIYAZAKI : Why is Mango the King of Fruits?

The Miyazaki mango, generally found in Japan, is known as the world’s most costly mango. The rare mango is now found in India in West Bengal’s Birbhum district. it is priced at an exorbitant rate of Rs 3 lakh per kilogram.

A tree of Miyazaki mango that has been planted close to a mosque in Dubrajpur attracts people across the state.

Commonly found in Japan, this mango variety is predominantly grown during the peak harvest season – from April to August.

The Miyazaki mango undergoes a enthralling transformation as it ripens. initially, its colour is purple. but, as soon as it reaches its peak ripeness, it becomes a flaming red. A single Miyazaki mango weighs approximately 500 GM to 900 gm.

On Friday, the mosque authorities held an auction for the prized Miyazaki mangos, sometimes called ‘eggs of the sun’. The mosque was able to collect lakhs of rupees thru the sale of the rare mangos. The collected money might be used for the development of the mosque, the authorities said.

A neighborhood villager planted the Miyazaki mango tree years ago. It was only that the villagers learned that those mangos are the world’s most expensive ones. as the news spread in the locality, it became a factor of attraction.

What is Aamsatta? Why is Mango the King of Fruits?

The boiled mango pieces being pasted finely and mixed with jaggery, a pinch of salt, and pepper, fried spices like jeera dust, Gommorich, elaichi etc to be boiled in a Kadai and after 15 to 20 minutes it was kept in big Kangsha Thalies. Everyday all these chillies were kept under the sun rays on the roofs of 2nd floor of our home. This is called in Bengali” Aamsatwa”.

It’s delicious when it comes out after frying from the sun heat. While it’s under the sky, every dishes and utensils were kept covering with a clean white clothes to protect it from any birds or other creatures.


Immature Black Mango fruit
Scientific classification
More than 50 species; see listing
Mango The King of the Fruits/

Mangoesbelong to the genusMangifera, consisting of numerous species of tropical fruitingtreesin theflowering plantfamilyAnacardiaceae. The mango is indigenous to theIndian SubcontinentespeciallyIndia,Pakistan,Bangladesh, andSoutheast Asia.[1]

Therefore, it is cultivated in many tropical regions and distributed widely in the world, mango is one of the most extensively exploited fruits for food, juice, flavor, fragrance and color, making it a common ingredient in new functional foods often called superfruits.

Its leaves are ritually used as floral decorations atweddingsand religious ceremonies. I can remember that we made the ring and decorated my elder brother’s shop with the chain of mango leaves. Even its branches with leaves are used in Mangal Ghat. Its also the national fruit of India.

The Table of Contents: Why is Mango the King of Fruits?

1 Etymology2 Description3 Cultivation and uses3.1 Diseases3.2 Food3.3 In Indian cuisine3.4 Elsewhere3.5 Nutrient and antioxidant properties4 Production and consumption5 Cultivars6 Species7 See also8 Notes9 References10 External links
Table of Contents/ Mango the King of the Fruits /


The namemangois ultimately either from theKodagumange, theMalayalammanga, or theTamilmangai, and was loaned into Portuguese in the early 16th century asmanga, from where the Portuguese passed into English. The ending in-oappears in English and is of unclear origin.[2]


green mango fruits hanging on tree
Mango the king of the Fruits/ Photo by Drift Shutterbug on

Mango flowers

Mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) reach 35-40 m in height, with a crown radius of 10 m. The tree is long-lived with some specimens known to be over 300 years old and still fruiting.

In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 20 ft, and the profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots also send down many anchor roots which penetrate for several feet.

The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15-35 cm long and 6-16 cm broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark glossy red, then dark green as they mature.

Theflowersare produced in terminalpanicles10-40 cm long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5-10 mm long, with a mild sweet odour suggestive of the lily of the valley. The fruit takes from three to six months to ripen.

assorted color mangoes
Mango the king of the fruits/Photo by Marco Antonio Victorino on

The Ripe Fruits : Why is Mango the King of Fruits?

The ripe fruit is variable in size and color, and may be yellow, orange, red or green when ripe, depending on the cultivar. When ripe, the unpeeled fruit gives off a distinctiveresinoussweet smell. In its center is a single flat oblong seed that can befibrousor hairy on the surface, depending on the cultivar. Inside the seed coat 1-2 mm thick is a thin lining covering a singleembryo, 4-7 cm long, 3-4 cm wide, and 1 cm thick.

Mango fruits are often cut into a “hedgehog” style for eating (left). A cross section of a mango can be seen on the right

Cultivation and uses

Mango tree with flowers

Mangoes have been cultivated in theIndian subcontinentfor thousands of years[3]and reachedEast Asiabetween the 5th-4th centuries BC.

By the 10th century AD, they were transported toEast Africa[3]and subsequently introduced toBrazil,West IndiesandMexico, where the climate allows its appropriate growth.[3]

 The 14th-century Muslim traveller,Ibn Battuta, reported it atMogadishu.[4]

Mango is now cultivated as a fruit tree infrost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates like that of theIndian subcontinent; nearly half of the world’s mangoes are cultivated in India alone.[5][6][7]

Other regions where mango is cultivated includeNorth,SouthandCentral America, theCaribbean, south and centralAfrica,Australia,China,PakistanandSoutheast Asia.

It is easilycultivatedyielding more than 1,000cultivars, ranging from the “turpentine mango” (named for its strong taste ofturpentine, which according to theOxford Companion to Foodsome varieties contain) to thehuevos de toro(“eggs of the bull”, a euphemism for “bull‘stesticles“, referring to the shape and size).

Nicknamed “king of mangoes”, theAlphonsogrown mainly in Devgad, Sindhudurg & Ratnagiri Districts of Maharashtra,India and favored there, is now popular in the United States.[8][9]

Though India is the largest producer of mangoes in the world, it accounts for less than one percent of the global mango trade.[10]

Dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties serve asornamental plantsand can be grown in containers.

Mango as a Food: Why is Mango the King of Fruits?

A ripe mango is sweet, with a unique taste that nevertheless varies from variety to variety. The texture of the flesh varies between cultivars, some having a soft, pulpy texture similar to an over-ripeplum, while others have firmer flesh like acantaloupeoravocado. In some cultivars, the flesh has a fibrous texture.

A pack ofamchur(or dry mango) powder in India.

InIndian cuisine : Why is Mango the King of Fruits?

In western recipes of ‘Chutney’, ripe mangoes are often used, but chutney in theIndian subcontinentis usually made with sour, unripe mangoes and hotchilisorlimes.

In India, ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers,desiccated, folded, and then cut. These bars,knownasaampapdi,’amavatorhalvain Hindi, are similar to driedguavafruit bars available in Colombia.

In many parts of India, people eat squeezed mango juice (calledras) on a variety of bread. This is part of the meal rather than a dessert. Unripe mangoes (which are extremely sour) are eaten with salt, and in regions where food is hotter, with salt and chili.

In Kerala, ripe mangoes are used in a dish calledmambazha kaalan.

In Maharashtra,moramba(a kind of preserve, made from jaggery and mango) andaamrus(Pulp/Thick Juice made of mangoes, with a bit of sugar if needed and milk at times) are famous.

A spicy, sweet and sour semi-liquid side dish calledmeth-ambais made from unripe mango slices calledKairi, jaggery and fenugreek seeds. They can be enjoyed with poories and policies, like jam.

In India mango is used aspickle(aachar),amawat,murraba,sukhawata&chatniorchutney.

crop unrecognizable person with jar of pickled zucchini
Mango Pickle / Photo by Ksenia Chernaya on

During the hot summer months, a cooling summer drink calledpanha(in Marathi) andpanna(across north India) is made with raw mango. Mangolassiis made by adding mango pulp to the North Indian yoghurt drink lassi.

The fruit is also used in a variety of cereal products, in particular muesli and oat granola. Dried and powdered unripe mango is known asamchur(sometimes spelledamchoor) in India andambiin Urdu.Ambis aSindhi,aambaaMarathi, andaamaHindi/Urdu/Punjabiword for mango.


In thePhilippines, unripe mango is eaten withbagoong. Dried strips of sweet, ripe mango are also popular, with those fromCebuexported worldwide.Guimarasproduces a delicious mango.

mango smoothie in clear glass topped with fresh sliced mango
Mango Lassi / Photo bmy Phạm Thành Đạt on

Freshly harvested mangoes andbananasat a fruit stand on the island ofMaui,Hawaii

InMexico, mango is used to makejuices,smoothies,ice cream,fruit bars,raspados,aguas frescas,piesand sweetchili sauce, or mixed withchamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped in hot chili powder and salt or also as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations.

Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping onice creamor blended with milk and ice as milkshakes. InThailandand other South East Asian countries, sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut then served with sliced mango as a dessert.

In other parts ofSouth-east Asia, mangoes are pickled withfish sauceand rice vinegar.

In Taiwan, mango is a topping that can be added to shaved ice along with condensed milk.

The sweet bell pepper (capsicum) was once known as mango in parts of theUnited States.[11]

InCosta RicaandGuatemala, mango is either eaten green with salt, or ripe in various forms. Only in Costa Rica, ripe mangoes are calledmangato differentiate them. InGuatemala, toasted and ground pumpkin seed with lime and salt are the norm when eating green mangoes.

Nutrient and antioxidant properties

Mango, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 70 kcal 270 kJ
Carbohydrates 17.00 g- Sugars 14.8 g-Dietary fiber1.8 g Fat0.27 gProtein.51 gVitamin Aequiv. 38 μg 4%- β-carotene445 μg 4%Thiamine (Vit. B1)0.058 mg 4%Riboflavin (Vit. B2)0.057 mg 4%Niacin (Vit. B3)0.584 mg 4%Pantothenic acid(B5) 0.160 mg 3%Vitamin B60.134 mg10%Folate(Vit. B9) 14 μg 4%Vitamin C27.7 mg46%Calcium10 mg1%Iron0.13 mg1%Magnesium9 mg2%Phosphorus11 mg2%Potassium156 mg 3%Zinc0.04 mg0%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendationsfor adults.
Source:USDA Nutrient database
Nutrients of Mango

Mango is rich in a variety ofphytochemicalsandnutrientsthat qualify it as a model “superfruit“, a term used to highlight potential health value of certain ediblefruits. The fruit is high inprebioticdietary fiber,vitamin C,polyphenolsandcarotenoids.[12]

Mango contains essentialvitaminsanddietary minerals. TheantioxidantvitaminsA,CandEcomprise 25%, 76% and 9% of theDietary Reference Intake(DRI) in a 165 g serving.

Vitamin B6(pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), otherB vitaminsandessential nutrientssuch aspotassium,copperand 17amino acidsare at good levels.

Mangopeeland pulp contain otherphytonutrients, such as thepigmentantioxidants– carotenoids and polyphenols – andomega-3and -6polyunsaturated fatty acids.

The edible mango peel has considerable value as a source ofdietary fibreand antioxidant pigments.[13][14][15]Contained within the peel and pulp are rich contents ofpolysaccharidesas fibre sources, especiallystarchandpectins.[16][17]

Antioxidantsof the peel and pulp include carotenoids, such as theprovitamin Acompound,beta-carotene,luteinandalpha-carotene,[18]polyphenols[19][20]such asquercetin,kaempferol,gallic acid,caffeic acid,catechins,tannins and so on.

The unique mango xanthone, mangiferin,[21] any of which may counteract free radicals in various disease mechanisms as revealed in preliminary research.[22]

 Contents of these phytochemicals and nutrients appear to vary across different mango species.[24]Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest content for which wasbeta-caroteneaccounting for the yellow-orangepigmentationof most mango species.[25]

 Peel and leaves also have significant content of polyphenols, includingxanthones, mangiferin andgallic acid.[26]

The mangotriterpene, lupeol[27]is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin cancers[28].[29][30]

 An extract of mango branch bark called Vimang, isolated by Cuban scientists, contains numerouspolyphenolswith antioxidant propertiesin vitro[31]and on blood parameters of elderly humans.[32]

The pigmenteuxanthin, known asIndian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of cows fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 due to malnutrition of the cows and possibleurushiolpoisoning.

[33]One author[34]claims these descriptions of the pigment’s origin rely on a single anecdotal source and Indian legal records do not mention such a practice being outlawed.

Production and consumption: Why is mango the king of the fruits?

Mangoes account for approximately fifty percent of all tropical fruits produced worldwide. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations estimates worldwide production of mangoes at more than 23 million tons in 2001.[5]

With 12 million tons produced annually (2002-3 data), India[6]accounts for almost half of the world production, followed by China (3 million tons), Pakistan (2.25 million tons), Mexico (1.5 million tons) and Thailand (1.35 million tons).

The aggregate production of 10 countries is responsible for roughly 80% of the entire world’s mango production.

Alphonso, Benishan or Benishaan (Banganpalli in Telugu and Tamil) and Kesar mango varieties are considered among the best mangoes in the Southern States.

Whereas Dussehri and Langda varieties are most popular in the Northern states ofIndia. Commonly exported, theAlphonsocultivar is grown exclusively in the Konkan region ofMaharashtra.

Alphonso is named afterAfonso De Albuquerquewho reputedly brought thedrupeon his journeys toGoa. The locals took to calling this Aphoos inKonkaniand in Maharashtra the pronunciation got further corrupted to Hapoos. This variety then was taken to the Konkan region of Maharashtra and other parts of India.

Andhra PradeshandKarnatakastates in the south,Gujaratin western India, andUttar PradeshandBiharin the north are major producers of mangoes harvested especially to make spicy mango pickles having regional differences in taste.

InPakistanthe popular mangoes are the Sindhri and Chaunsa, besides other varieties likeLangra, Anwar Ratoal and Malva.

The Sindhri mango is primarily produced in the province of Sindh and can measure up to half a foot in length. It is generally considered one of the best mangoes in the world.

Generally, once ripe, mangoes have an orange-yellow or reddish peel and are juicy for eating while those intended for export are often picked while under-ripe with green peels.

Although its flavour producesethylenewhile ripening, unripened exported mangoes do not have the same juiciness or flavour as fresh fruit.

green mangoes and red apples
Green Mangoes from Philippine/Photo by Artem Beliaikin on

Mangoes are popular throughoutLatin America. InMexico, sliced mango is eaten withchili powderand/or salt. Street vendors sometimes sell whole mangoes on a stick, dipped in the chili-salt mixture.

InIndonesiaandThailand, green mango is sold by street vendors with sugar and salt and/or chili, or used in a sour salad calledrujakorrojakinMalaysiaandSingapore.

Ayurvedaconsiders ripe mango sweet and heating, balancing all threedoshas (humors).It is also providing energy. Powdered raw mango is sometimes a condiment in variouscuisines.

Like otherdrupaceous fruits, mangoes come in bothfreestoneandclingstonevarieties.

Area harvested of mangoes by country as of 2007[35]:WHY DO WE FACE DANDRUFF?: A SURVEY Q & A

  1. India : 2,143,000 hectares
  2. China : 445,000 hectares
  3. Thailand : 285,000 hectares
  4. Indonesia : 266,000 hectares
  5. Pakistan : 215,000 hectares
  6. Mexico : 200,000 hectares
  7. Philippines : 181,000 hectares
  8. Nigeria : 126,500 hectares
  9. Brazil : 89,800 hectares
  10. Guinea : 82,000 hectares
  11. Viet Nam : 52,000 hectares
  12. Bangladesh : 51,000 hectares
Top Ten Mangoes Producers — 2007
CountryProduction (Tonnes)Footnote
People’s Republic of China3752000F
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official, semi-official or estimates);
Source:Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision
Mango the King of the Fruits

Cultivars: Why is Mango the King of Fruits?

Many hundreds of named mangocultivarsexist. In mangoorchards, several cultivars are often intermixed to improve cross-pollination. Many desired cultivars aremono-embryonicand need to be propagated bygraftingmethods or else they will not be true-to-type.

A common (mono-embryonic) cultivar isAlphonsoknown in Asia under its original name, Hapoos. As it is extremely popular, even outside the Indian subcontinent, Alphonso is an important export product.

Cultivars excelling in one climate may fail to achieve elsewhere. For example, the cultivar Julie, a Jamaican favorite, and Alphonso have not been successfully grown in Florida.

The current world market is dominated by the cultivarTommy Atkins, a seedling of Haden which first fruited in 1940 in southern Florida, USA. Despite being initially rejected commercially by Florida researchers[citation needed], Tommy Atkins is now a favorite worldwide.

80% of mangoes inUKsupermarketsare Tommy Atkins. Despite its fibrous flesh and fair taste, growers worldwide have embraced the cultivar for its exceptional production and disease resistance, theshelf-lifeof its fruit, their transportability as well as size and appealing colour.

Moreover, Tommy Atkins is predominant in the USA as well. Although other cultivars, such Kent, Keit, the Haitian grown Madame Francis and the Mexican grown Champagne are widely available.

In urban areas of southern Florida, small gardens, or lack thereof, have fueled the desire fordwarfmango trees. TheFairchild Tropical Botanic Gardenhas promoted “condo mangoes” which produce at a height below 2-2.5 m.

There is an Australian variety of mango known asR2E2, a name based on the orchard row location of the original plant.


There are many species of mango, including:

Mangifera acutigemmaMangifera altissimaMangifera andamanicaMangifera austro-indicaMangifera austro-yunnanensisMangifera blommesteiniiMangifera bullataMangifera caesiaMangifera camptospermaMangifera campnospermoidesMangifera casturiMangifera collinaMangifera decandraMangifera dewildeiMangifera dongnaiensisMangifera flavaMangifera foetidaMangifera gedebeMangifera gracilipesMangifera griffithiiMangifera hiemalisMangifera indicaMangifera kemangaMangifera lalijiwaMangifera laurinaMangifera longipesMangifera macrocarpaMangifera magnificaMangifera mekongensisMangifera minutifoliaMangifera monandraMangifera nicobaricaMangifera odorataMangifera orophilaMangifera pajangMangifera paludosaMangifera parvifoliaMangifera pedicellataMangifera pentandraMangifera persiciformisMangifera quadrifidaMangifera rubropetalaMangifera rufocostataMangifera siamensisMangifera similisMangifera sumbawaensisMangifera superbaMangifera swintonioidesMangifera sylvaticaMangifera taipaMangifera torquendaMangifera transversalisMangifera zeylanica
Mango the king of the fruits

Notes and Reference:

  1. ^Mango: botany and taxonomy, HorticultureWorld
  2. ^Oxford English Dictionary mango, n. 1
  3. ^abcEnsminger 1994: 1373
  4. ^Watson, Andrew J. (1983).Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world: the diffusion of crops and farming techniques, 700-1100. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 72–3.ISBN 0-521-24711-X.
  5. ^abJedele S, Hau AM, von Oppen M. An analysis of the world market for mangoes and its importance for developing countries. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, 2003[1]
  6. ^abIndia world’s largest producer of mangoes, Rediff India Abroad, April 21, 2004
  7. ^Mad About mangoes: As exports to the U.S. resume, a juicy business opportunity ripens, India Knowledge@Wharton Network, June 14, 2007
  8. ^Allen J. Mango mania in Portland, Oregon, New York Times, May 10, 2006
  9. ^Black R. Plump it up. Sweet, juicy mangoes are at their peak, with seasonal varieties ripe for the picking, New York Daily News, May 13, 2007
  10. ^USAID helps Indian mango farmers access new markets, USAID-India, May 3, 2006
  11. ^Merriam-Webster Dictionary Definition.
  12. ^Nutrient profile for mango,
  13. ^Mango peel extract shows functional food potential
  14. ^Rocha Ribeiro SM, Queiroz JH, Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz ME, Campos FM, Pinheiro Sant’ana HM (Mar 2007). “Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp”.Plant Foods Hum Nutr.62(1): 13–7.doi:10.1007/s11130-006-0035-3.PMID 17243011. “However, the mango peel has properties similar to sumac or poison ivy, resulting in allergic rashes around the mouth, eyes, cheeks, and genitalia if the urushiol oil is spread. Washing the affected area five minutes after contact should prevent some of the symptoms. Symptoms can be swelling, formation of yellow sores, redness, and if unmaintained, may be subjected to bacterial infection.”.
  15. ^Ajila CM, Prasada Rao UJ (Jan 2008). “Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract”.Food Chem Toxicol.46(1): 303–9.doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.08.024.PMID 17919803.
  16. ^Iagher F, Reicher F, Ganter JL (Dec 2002). “Structural and rheological properties of polysaccharides from mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp“.Int J Biol Macromol.31(1-3): 9–17.doi:10.1016/S0141-8130(02)00044-2.PMID 12559422.
  17. ^Berardini N, Fezer R, Conrad J, Beifuss U, Carle R, Schieber A (Mar 2005). “Screening of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars for their contents of flavonol O- and xanthone C-glycosides, anthocyanins, and pectin”.J Agric Food Chem.53(5): 1563–70.doi:10.1021/jf0484069.PMID 15740041.
  18. ^Gouado I, Schweigert FJ, Ejoh RA, Tchouanguep MF, Camp JV (Oct 2007). “Systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed in three forms (juice, fresh and dry slice)”.Eur J Clin Nutr.61(10): 1180–8.doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602841.PMID 17637601.
  19. ^Mahattanatawee K, Manthey JA, Luzio G, Talcott ST, Goodner K, Baldwin EA (Sep 2006). “Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits”.J Agric Food Chem.54(19): 7355–63.doi:10.1021/jf060566s.PMID 16968105.
  20. ^Singh UP, Singh DP, Singh M,et al(Mar 2004). “Characterization of phenolic compounds in some Indian mango cultivars”.Int J Food Sci Nutr.55(2): 163–9.doi:10.1080/09637480410001666441.PMID 14985189.
  21. ^Andreu GL, Delgado R, Velho JA, Curti C, Vercesi AE (Jul 2005). “Mangiferin, a natural occurring glucosyl xanthone, increases susceptibility of rat liver mitochondria to calcium-induced permeability transition”.Arch Biochem Biophys.439(2): 184–93.doi:10.1016/ 15979560.
  22. ^Percival SS, Talcott ST, Chin ST, Mallak AC, Lounds-Singleton A, Pettit-Moore J (01 May 2006). “Neoplastic transformation of BALB/3T3 cells and cell cycle of HL-60 cells are inhibited by mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice and mango juice extracts“.J Nutr.136(5): 1300–4.PMID 16614420.
  23. ^Rodríguez J, Di Pierro D, Gioia M,et al(Sep 2006). “Effects of a natural extract from Mangifera indica L, and its active compound, mangiferin, on energy state and lipid peroxidation of red blood cells”.Biochim Biophys Acta.1760(9): 1333–42.doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2006.04.005.PMID 16860486.
  24. ^Rocha Ribeiro SM, Queiroz JH, Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz ME, Campos FM, Pinheiro Sant’ana HM (Mar 2007). “Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp”.Plant Foods Hum Nutr.62(1): 13–7.doi:10.1007/s11130-006-0035-3.PMID 17243011.
  25. ^Chen JP, Tai CY, Chen BH (Oct 2004). “Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.)”.J Chromatogr A.1054(1-2): 261–8.PMID 15553152.
  26. ^Barreto JC, Trevisan MT, Hull WE,et al(Jul 2008). “Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.)”.J Agric Food Chem.56(14): 5599–610.doi:10.1021/jf800738r.PMID 18558692.
  27. ^Chaturvedi PK, Bhui K, Shukla Y (May 2008). “Lupeol: connotations for chemoprevention”.Cancer Lett.263(1): 1–13.doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.01.047.PMID 18359153.
  28. ^Prasad S, Kalra N, Singh M, Shukla Y (Mar 2008). “Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice”.Asian J Androl.10(2): 313–8.doi:10.1111/j.1745-7262.2008.00313.x.PMID 18097535.
  29. ^Nigam N, Prasad S, Shukla Y (Nov 2007). “Preventive effects of lupeol on DMBA induced DNA alkylation damage in mouse skin”.Food Chem Toxicol.45(11): 2331–5.doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.06.002.PMID 17637493.
  30. ^Saleem M, Afaq F, Adhami VM, Mukhtar H (Jul 2004). “Lupeol modulates NF-kappaB and PI3K/Akt pathways and inhibits skin cancer in CD-1 mice”.Oncogene23(30): 5203–14.doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207641.PMID 15122342.
  31. ^Rodeiro I, Cancino L, González JE,et al(Oct 2006). “Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang), a new natural product with antioxidant activity”.Food Chem Toxicol.44(10): 1707–13.doi:10.1016/j.fct.2006.05.009.PMID 16857303.
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  33. ^History of Indian yellow, Pigments Through the Ages
  34. ^Finlay, Victoria (2003).Color : A Natural History of the Palette. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks.ISBN 0-8129-7142-6.
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  • Ensminger, Audrey H.; Ensminger, Marion E. (1994).Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia. CRC Press. pp. 1373.ISBN 0849389801.
  • Ensminger, Audrey H.; et al. (1995).The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods & Nutrition. CRC Press. pp. 651.ISBN 0849344557.


Categories:Mangifera|Fruits originating in Asia|Tropical fruit|Medicinal plants|Tropical agriculture|Tamil words and phrases | National symbols of India

By kalpataru

I'm Dr. Sushil Rudra, residing in Durgapur City West Bengal, India . Studied in The University of Calcutta and did M.A , Ph.D . Also another M.A from Sridhar University. Taught in College and University ( RTU) . Love to write, traveling, singing Rabindrasangeet and social work. Have some books authored by me. Vivekananda and Rabibdranath both are my favourite subject. I have written more than 150 articles in my blog( and now I'm writing in my new " blog.


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