Dr Sushil Rudra
Various Forms Of Depression:
Depression is now a massive ailment in modern society. So we must keep alert about this devastating mental illness. Because we couldn’t guess depression and its various forms.
Generally, we couldn’t detect this silent disease. When it comes to us, we don’t have to get alert. Who cares about it when a family member is under mental stress and anxiety? We say, ” All is going well.
Nevertheless, we have no idea that our family member or friend is having a disorder in moods. Therefore, am trying to keep light on depression and its various types of forms. It is the subject of this post.
If we become conscious, then we feel that out of five of our family members, one is going through a series of stress and anxiety disorders. Now the question is what type of depression he or she is facing and how to overcome this situation.
It is normal to feel down once in a while, but if you re-sad most of the time and it affects your daily life, you may have clinical depression. It’s a condition you can treat with medicine, talking to a psychiatrist, and even changes to your lifestyle.
There are many different types of depressions. Events in your life cause some. On the other hand, chemical changes in your brain cause others.
Whatever the cause, your first step is to let your doctor know how you’re feeling. He or she may refer you to a mental health specialist to help figure out the type of depression you have. This diagnosis is very important in deciding the right treatment for you.
2. Secondly, there is another type of depression. Its name is major depression. Full name is Major Depressive Disorder. You might have this type if you feel depressed most of the time for most days of the week.
Some other symptoms you might have are:
• Loss of interest or pleasure in your activities
• Weight Loss or gain
• Trouble getting to sleep or feeling sleepy during the day
• Feeling restless and agitated, or else very sluggish and slowed down physically or mentally, or both
• Being tired and without energy
• Feeling worthless or guilty
• Trouble concentrating on making decisions
• Thought of suicide
However, if you have five or more of these symptoms on most days for two weeks or longer, you are diagnosed with major depression. At least one of the symptoms must be a depressed mood or loss of interest in activities.
Under these circumstances, talk therapy can help. You should meet with a mental health specialist. He/she will help you find ways to manage your depression. Anti-depressing medication can also be helpful in this case.
When therapy and medications are not working, two other options a doctor may suggest. They are as follows :
* Electroconvulsive Therapy( ECT)
* Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
ECT uses electrical pulses and rTMS uses a special kind of magnet to stimulate certain areas of brain activity. This helps the parts of your brain that control your mood work better.
3. The third type of depression is Persistent Depressive Disorder.
Dysthymia is known as Persistent Depressive Disorder. It refers to a type of chronic depression present for more days than not for at least two years. It can be mild, moderate, or severe.
4. Another type of depression is Bipolar Depression.
Bipolar disorder is a mood- disorder characterised by periods of abnormally elevated mood known as mania.
These periods of a major can be mild ( hypomania ), or they can be so extreme as to cause marked impairment with a person’s life. It requires hospitalisation or affects a person’s sense of reality. The vast majority of those with bipolar illness also have episodes of major depression.
In addition to depressed mood and markedly diminished interest in activities. People with bipolar depression often have a range of physical and emotional symptoms which may include:
• Fatigue, Insomnia and Lethargy
• Unexplained aches, pains, and psychomotor agitation
• Hopelessness and loss of self-esteem
• Irritability and anxiety
• Indecision and disorganisation
Finally, we can say that the risk of suicide in bipolar illness is 15 times greater than in the general population. Psychosis ( including hallucinations and delusions) can also occur in more extreme cases.
Read more: 1. Mind – Brain and Depression 2. The Experience Of Facing Depression
5. Seasonal Affective Disorder: ( Depression and its various forms)
If we experience depression, sleepiness and weight gain during the winter months but feel perfectly fine in spring. We may have a condition known as Seasonal Affective Disorder ( SAD ). Recently, Doctors say it as Major Depressive Disorder, with seasonal patterns.
SAD is believed to be triggered by a disturbance in the normal circadian rhythm of the body. Light entering through the eyes influences this rhythm. Moreover, any seasonal variation in night or day patterns can cause a disruption leading to depression.
6. Peripartum Depression ( Postpartum )
Pregnancy can bring about significant hormonal shifts. It can often affect a woman’s mood. Depression can have its onset during pregnancy or following the birth of a child.
Postpartum depression is more than that just the ” baby Blues”.
It can range from persistent lethargy and sadness. Therefore, it requires medical treatment up to postpartum psychosis. This is a condition in which the mood episode is accompanied by confusion, hallucinations, delusions.
Approximately 1 to 10 men also experience depression in the peripartum period.
Antidepressant drugs can help similarly to treating major depression that is unrelated to childbirth.
Read also: The Experience Of Facing Depression
7. Psychotic Depression:
People with psychotic depression have the symptoms of major depression along with ” psychotic” symptoms, such as hallucinations( seeing or hearing things that aren’t there.), Delusions ( false beliefs), Paranoia( wrongly believing that others are trying to harm you)
8. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder ( PMDD)
Women with PMDD have depression and other symptoms at the start of their period.
Besides feeling depressed, they may also have • Mood swings • Irritability • Anxiety • Trouble concentrating • Fatigue • Change in appetite or sleep habit • Feeling of being overwhelmed.
Antidepressant medication or sometimes oral contraceptives can treat PMDD.
9. Situational Depression:
This is not a technical term in psychiatry. But you can have a depressed mood when you are having trouble managing a stressful event in your life, such as a death in your family, a divorce, or losing your job.
Doctors may call this ” stress response syndrome”.
Psychotherapy might help in this situation.
10. Atypical Depression:
Atypical Depression is considered to be a ” specifier” that describes a pattern of depression symptoms.
A positive event can temporarily improve one’s mood.
Other symptoms of Atypical Depression are :
• Increased appetite • Sleeping more than usual • Feeling of heaviness in your arms and legs.
Antidepressant medication can help you in such a situation.