Tag Archives: All about India

Why Indians are the Most Depressed?

Posted on by Sushil Rudra

‘Mental pain is less dramatic than physical pain, but it is more common and also harder to bear

– C.S Lewis

Why Indians are the most depressed in the world? According to the World Health Organisation, India is the most depressed country followed by China and the USA. China, India and the US are the most affected countries by anxiety, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, according to WHO.

India – Depression ?

We have discussed in the previous post how insurgency deeply affected the people of Kashmir and the Seven Sisters of the northeast.

A study reported in WHO, conducted for the NCMH (National Care Of Medical Health), states that at least 6.5 per cent of the Indian population suffers from some form of serious mental disorder.

Unemployment and poverty are the major reasons for the development of depression in India. After attaining higher education youths are unable to have a satisfactory job.

Lack of proper consciousness about mental health is another cause. I have told about insurgency and the activities of extremists in some provinces of our country. Unfortunately, it is a consistent cause that our government has been facing for an uncertain period.

I think there are several factors ranging from irregular income to domestic abuse that causes depression to develop in individuals. Their ability to access counselling or medicine makes it even worse for them, often culminating in suicides.

Though there are effective measures and treatments, there is an extreme shortage of mental health workers like psychologists, psychiatrists, and doctors. As reported latest in 2014, it was as low as ”one in 100,000 people”. The average suicide rate in India is 10.9 for every lakh people and the majority of people who commit suicide are below 44 years of age.

A study surveyed over 10,000 Indians to understand how they have been coping with the new normal.

According to the study, 26 per cent of respondents were suffering from mild depression. 11 per cent were feeling moderately depressed, and six per cent were facing severe symptoms of depression.

The last 2 years unexpectedly lockdown have been going on. The situation has taken a major toll on mental health.

With the series of knock-downs, anxiety, job cuts, health scares, and the overall volatile environment, stress levels are at an all-time high.

“Copious amounts of stress can lead to depression. With the current lockdown and lifestyles drastically changing, we have seen that 43 per cent of Indians are currently plagued with depression. But, hopefully, they are learning to cope with it,” the study said.

To monitor the severity of depression in the respondents, the study relied on a self-administered Patient Health Questionnaire or PHQ-9 (a form of primary care evaluation of mental disorders).

It took into account nine aspects of an individual’s daily routine. These are including interest levels in activities, appetite, sleep cycles, ability to concentrate, and energy levels.

“Our study indicates that an increasing number of people across the country are dealing with mental health issues triggered by the spread of the corona virus.

“The mounting uncertainty is the basis of the high stress index which can be controlled with a balanced diet, changes in lifestyle and appropriate sleep patterns,” said Vishal Gondal, Founder and CEO, GOQii.

Those feeling depressed complained of having little interest or pleasure in doing things. They are feeling hopeless, dealing with erratic sleep cycles, poor eating habits, low levels of energy, low self esteem, having trouble concentrating, being restless, and having thoughts of self harm.

“More than 59 per cent of the population said that they had little pleasure in doing things these days. Out of which 38 per cent have this feeling on a few days and 9 per cent feel so more than half of the days. Nearly 12 per cent felt this way almost every day in these times,” the study said.

It pointed out that more than 57 per cent of the respondents complained of feeling fatigued or having little energy through “at least some days in the last few weeks”.

Why India is most depressed country? Image: http://www.kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

“At least more than 15 per cent have this feeling more than half of the days. This leads to some people sleeping too much while some others have trouble sleeping.

“With the change in lifestyle, approximately half of the population is having trouble with their sleep,” the study said.

“At least 7 per cent of the population goes through this nearly every day while 33 per cent experience it on a few days,” it added.

Feeling hopeless, on the other hand, was not so common among the respondents. Only 10 per cent of them said they felt “down and depressed” more than half of the days or nearly every day.

The study suggested that adding exercising to one’s daily routine could help improve their mental health.

“Exercising can lead to endorphins (the happy hormone) which can help with depression. The more depressed you are, the more likely you are to not workout.

“But, it is important to cajole yourself into doing more things that make you feel happier,” it said.

Depression in Seniors:

In India, 30 per cent of the 103 million people above the age of 60 display symptoms of depression, according to a recent government survey.

It estimated that 8.3 per cent of the country’s elderly population have probable major depression. This means, one in every 12 elderly person in the country have had depression. 

The prevalence figure is 10 times higher than the self-reported diagnosed depression of 0.8 per cent in the elderly population. It is pointing at the burden of undiagnosed cases, the report said.

Among the people who are of 45 to 59 years of age, 26 per cent show depressive symptoms.

The Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare conducted the Longitudinal Ageing Study in between April 2017 and December 2018 on 72,250 older adults aged 45 years and above. Here is the report below .

More elderly women (9 per cent) have a prevalence of probable major depression than men (7 per cent). Also, the figure is higher among rural residents (9 per cent) than their urban counterparts (6 per cent).

The report also says that 10 per cent of the elderly population who live alone suffer from depression.

The study shows 3 per cent of all the elderly have some form of mental impairment.

Fewer people above the age of 60 who have 10 or more years of schooling (5 per cent) have depression than those with less than primary education (9 per cent).  

Over a tenth of the elderly population have probable major depression in Madhya Pradesh (17 per cent), Uttar Pradesh (14 per cent), Delhi (11 per cent), Bihar (10 per cent), and Goa (10 per cent).

Among the older adults above the age of 45 years, over 60% were hospitalised at a private facility in the 12 months prior to the survey. The mean out-of-pocket expenditure in private health facility among the elderly is Rs 31,933 compared to Rs 71,232 among those aged 45 to 59.  

The highest mean out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure is reported in the state of Arunachal Pradesh (Rs 10,368) followed by

Himachal Pradesh (Rs 3,477), Nagaland (Rs 3,288) and Meghalaya (Rs 3,152). Tamil Nadu (Rs 641), Gujarat (Rs 644), and Puducherry (Rs 645) reported lower mean OOP expenditure on outpatient care.

Around 6 per cent of the country’s elderly population live on their own while 5.2 per cent have said they have faced ill treatment at home in the one year preceding the survey.

How to Overcome Depression?

Why Indians are the most depressed?/www.kalpatarurudra.org

With the WHO stepping up to encourage people to come forward and talk about depression and making the disease one of the main talking point of World Health Day, 2017. The condition is gradually making itself heard in mainstream conversation.

The government and other NGOs, also mental health workers are now trying to reach out to more people. They are asking them to come forward with their condition. It’s only then possible to further research about causes and solutions on depression properly.

Government should provide low cost access to mental healthcare and medicine so that the common people can treat depression and get free it leading a joyful life.

How to battle depression

Why Indians are the most depressed? / image: www.kalpatarurudra.org

Finding meaning in life through love and work and being socially connected are important

We became felt immense agony when we listened to that a bright star in Bollywood ended his life owing to depression.

When a young person who had many years of productive life left, who was a National Olympiad Winner in Physics, and who left a career in mechanical engineering to become a talented and popular actor, takes such an extreme step.

It’s a collective loss to the nation. He was also a budding entrepreneur. So, We are unfortunate that a prodigious actor and an exceptional citizen is no longer with us.

Also read :DEPRESSION A SILENT PANDEMIC

Life is sometimes filled with anxiety, internal conflict, disharmony, uncertainty and fear of the unknown. These thoughts give way to myriad feelings.

One tends to feel like a stranger to one’s self. COVID-19 has acted as a catalyst inducing angst in the life of individual are already stressed because of various factors and modern lifestyles.

Stress in modern life and Indians:

Many factors cause stress in modern life. They include more engagement with technology and less with people; more focus on “success” (the ends) rather than the process of learning (the means); never-ending aspirations; relationship issues; impatience while doing tasks.

This is a generation looking for instant gratification. They have too many choices and the limitations of the human mind to choose wisely.

Besides, there are so many causes behind depression in modern generation. These are as follows:

the bridging of gender inequalities, increase in employment of women, growth and development of urban and peri-urban areas, interference of the media and social media in every aspect of life, and disruption in the traditional joint family system. There is an underlying strain on the socio-cultural fabric.

Some of this stress, if not handled well, can push human beings into depression.

Some interesting cases and studies throw light on the coping mechanisms for anxiety and depression. Viktor Frankl, who was detained in Nazi concentration camps, studied the source of depression. He found that it is a lack of meaning in life.

Individuals who are able to discover meaning tend to achieve the will and strength to endure life.

That brings us to the next question: how do we find meaning in life?

This is possible through love and work. Love for fellow beings come from the heart. It encourages a person to work or take action.

If we can base our actions and work on a shared love for family members and society at large, we can find effective meaning in life.

So, ‘The Art of Living’ involves managing the self for others.

We have already discussed about our great poet, Rabindranath Tagore. Because he had to face depression and was going to suicide.

Read here: http://www.kalpatarurudra.org /Rabindranath and depression

In his writings, Rabindranath Tagore suggested and also gave the prescriptions for depression and anxiety. He believed that being socially connected was an antidote to mental estrangement. Eventually, the plague-affected people were undergoing in 1918.

The poet, Rabindranath was aware that such a wildly contagious disease might cause panic among the students. Therefore, he organised many events in the Ashram. Practically, it ensured that social connections existed despite physical distance.

In an essay, he suggested that we generate bonhomie between the affected and those who were not. because the ill were not the enemy; the illness was.

For immunity from psychological suffering, it requires a design of togetherness. Rabindranath Tagore insisted on the famous Rig Vedic dicta:

 Yatra Visvam Bhavati Ekanidam (where the whole world meets in a single nest) and Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam (the world is one family).

Connecting with friends and family members:

So, why Indians are the most depressed?

Depressed people are not socially connected. Besides, they don’t get finding meaning in life. Social connection is very important.

I feel that positive and continuous communication is the key to ending the misery of anxiety, depression. It’s our moral duty to help the distressed to achieve higher levels of well-being.

This is an earnest request to all the students and teachers who are under any form of stress or tend to feel depressed, please express their inner pain and sorrow. We have to reach out and talk to people. Maybe friends or relatives.

Generally a depressed person may not want to connect initially. Therefore, I appeal to family, relatives and friends to watch out for signs in their near and dear ones. The following are the symptoms:

Persistent sadness, aloofness, loss of interest in activities and appetite, negative thoughts including about self-harm and so on. Each and everyone should provide immediate support and connect.

We must not stigmatise the condition of mental health issues. It can happen to anyone. Instead, let we support our family and friends to tide over the difficult times with love and care. In doing so, we will overcome from this silent disease.

The Pioneer Of The Bengali Novel ?

Dr. Sushil K Rudra

Durgapur Steel City /19.09.2021

Posted on by Sushil Rudra

Who is the pioneer of Bengali novel? This is a long – debated question and we can not say clearly that anyone of the earlier writers is to be the pioneer of Bengali novel.

Surprisingly some critics opinion that the first Bengali Novel was not any Bengali but a Swiss woman. She is Hana Catherine Mullens (1826–1861). Her father came to Chinsurah as a preacher of Christianity.

Miss Mullens learned both Bengali and Sanskrit from the early days of her teens. She wrote Phulmani O Karunar Bibaran (Description of Phulmani and Karuna), in 1852. ( Wikipedia)

But other critics say that Bhabani Charan Bandhopadhay is the debut writer of Bengali novel? He was the editor of Sambad Kaumudi and Samachar Chandrika. He had published the first novel Kalikata Kamalalay (1823).

His other novels are  Nabababubilas or the Amusements of the Modern Baboo (1825), Dyutibilash (1825), Nababibibilash (1831), Sri Gayatirtha Bistar, Ashcharya Upakhyan (1835), Purushottam Chandrika (1844).

But his works hardly satisfy all the characteristics of a Novel. (Wikipedia)

So Bhabani Charan with his Naba Babu Bilash (1825) may claim the first place.

Again, Peary Chand Mitra, from Young Bengal Society may also be counted as the first writer of Bengali Novel. His first novel is  Alaler Gharer Dulal (Bengali: আলালের ঘরের দুলাল. It is published in 1857 which is a Bengali novel by Peary Chand Mitra (1814-1883).

The writer used the pseudonym Tekchand Thakur for this novel. (Wikipedia) This novel by its merit may claim the first printed novel in Bengali.

As per Sansad Bangali Charitabhidhan page 423, Harinath Mazumdar or Kangal Harinath wrote a novel Bijay Basanta at the same time.

Most of us would probably say ‘Alaler Gharer Dulal’ (1857-58), written by Peary Chand Mitra under the pseudonym Tekchand Thakur is the first novel. Again, we would be wrong.

While a pioneering novel in many ways, this wasn’t the first published novel in Bengali. That honour goes to a book that all but a handful of scholars have forgotten, written, of all people, by a Swiss woman.

image: www.kalpatarurudra.org/jpg/ The pioneer of Bengali novel?

The novel in question is ‘Phulmani o Karunar Biboron’. It’s published in Bengali in 1852 and rapidly translated into several Indian languages thereafter.

Also Read : The Banned Books In India

Forgotten for about a century, Chittaranjan Bandhopaddhay rediscovered the novel in the 1950s. He was then employed at the National Library.

Read more:Indian Literature And Women Writing

Going through old Bengali books for a particular project, he stumbled upon the 300-page book. Its pages were crumbling, but professionally it was printed.

He didn’t find any author’s name anywhere, but going through the book, realised it must have been written by a woman.

Finally, he consulted an old catalogue to find out that the author’s name was Hana Catherine Mullens. Realising the value of the book, Bandyopadhyay had the book republished in 1959.

The pioneer of Bengali Novel ?/ image:www.kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

Hana Catherine Lacroix born in Calcutta. She was the daughter of Alphonse François Lacroix. Mainly he a Swiss Protestant missionary. He went to Chinsurah in 1821. He married Hannah Herklots, who was from a Dutch colonial family.

Since her young age, she developed an astonishing command over spoken Bengali at a very early age. She learned the Bengali language with her native household workers.

So much so that when she was only 12, she began teaching Bengali in a newly established school. The family travelled back to Europe when she was 15, and Hana trained to be a teacher in London before returning to Calcutta.

The pioneer of the Bengali Novel? / image: www.kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

In 1845 she married Joseph Mullens. He was a fellow missionary, who had travelled out to India on the same ship as Hana’s father.

The couple continued their work in Calcutta for several more years. Because of her fluency in Bengali, Hana became head of a boarding school for girls, and taught Bible classes to women.

Apart from Phulmani o Karunar Biboron, which bore the tagline that it had been written ‘for the benefit of women’, Hana’s lasting legacy will remain the zenana missions.

(zenana were the secluded living quarters of girls and women, similar to purdah)

There Hana began an outreach programme to educate women.

Having persuaded the widow of a Hindu doctor to accommodate zenana teaching in her home, she negotiated other similar arrangements. By the time of her death in 1861, she was overseeing four zenana missions and visiting another eleven missions every day.

Thus, over two decades before Swarnakumari Devi became the first Bengali woman to write a novel (Deepnirban in 1876). Hana Catherine Mullens had broken new ground and gone where no one had gone before.

Happily, her book is once again available for readers, and irrespective of literary merit, deserves to be read for its historic value alone.

Bankim Chandra Chatterji: The pioneer of Bengali Novel?

Naturally, the Bengali novel started its journey with Durgeshnandini.  Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote this novel in 1865. According to Annada Sankar and Lila Ray,

‘when the novel was introduced in Bengali in the middle of the 19th century, the form itself was new. The prose was new. The secular tone was new in a country hitherto wholly dominated by religion. And also, the society in which and for which it was written was new’ (p. 168).

But some great novelists like Bankim Chandra ChatterjeeRabindranath TagoreManik BandopadhyayTarashankar Bandopadhyay, and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay developed the newly introduced genre.

They enhanced and mistreated its beauty. They did it in such a way that ‘new’ changed into ‘matured’ through their works.

Almost all these literature were published from Calcutta.

Bankim Chandra, Literature, Novel, The pioneer of Bengali Novel.

Read more: Indian Literature And Women Writing

PRACTICE 7 ASANA FOR IMMUNITY

Is India Already A Hindu Rashtra?

 Sushil Rudra

In a lecture on “India and secularism,” eminent economist, statesman, and veteran political leader Dr Subramannam Swami remarked that India is already a Hindu Rashtra. How far true it is? Is India already a Hindu Rastra?

However, more than 80% of a citizen of India is Hindu. Is this not sufficient for a Hindu Rastra? India is a place where Hindu deities are worshipped. Our culture is also the same.

But as the people of other sects live here with the same status, we call it a Hindu Rastra. 20% of people aré minorities. Despite its Democratic form of government, India is already a Hindu Rastra – some people think so.

IS INDIA ALREADY A HINDU RASTRA?

Nowadays some people of both Hindu and Muslim communities and religious sections are violating the Indian Constitution.

Even political leaders are making nuisance with their hate speeches during the election campaigns.

The authority did not take any steps or action against the leaders of political parties who are making hate speeches.

Unless it doesn’t disqualify a person from contesting the election for making hate speeches, there will be no effective check on this sensitive issue.”

Dr Madhav Godbole said the above comment. We all know that Mr Godbole resigned as Union home secretary in the aftermath of the Babri Masjid demolition.

Dr Godbole has written 26 books on Indian policy issues since he bid farewell to the Indian Administrative Service in 1993.

However, he has just published his latest book ” India – A Federal Union of States – Fault Lines, Challenges and Opportunities ” (Konark Publishers).

“I fail to understand why the Supreme Court has not given a direction so far to operationalise secularism,” Dr Godbole tells it.

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In his book, he says that though secularism is part of the basic structure of the Constitution. But here political parties do not follow secularism.

Moreover, not a political party maintain lowfully secularism. It is out of proper operation. What threat does it pose to India and Indian federalism?

All those advocating a Hindu Rashtra must realise that Rashtra is a much larger concept. And a Hindu Rashtra cannot consist of Hindus alone. It is a combination of different religions that constitute India.

Secondly, successive governments did really not perpetrate to secularism over the years.

Despite the Supreme Court ruling that it is part of the basic structure of the Constitution. But the government did not thoroughly operationalise Secularism.

Dr Godbole further says that he fails to understand why the Supreme Court did not give a direction so far to operationalise secularism.

Meanwhile, the Supreme Court has declared several rights as fundamental rights. Even those which are not mentioned in the Constitution, like the right to privacy, right to information also granted .

Supreme Court recognised 8-10 rights. Supreme Court gave recognition of it as a fundamental right. Though these were not in the Constitution.

Similarly, why can’t the Supreme Court say that secularism is part of the basic structure of the Constitution? And therefore, the Supreme authority should take steps to operationalise it?

Thirdly, the minimum that a government can do is to bring a law. Therefore, it says that a candidate should get 50% plus 1 vote to be declared a winner in an election.

S/he will then represent the majority in the real sense of the term. Therefore, her/his appeal will not be limited to her/his caste, creed, community, religion, etc.

The candidate will have to appeal to various sections of society and that will be a real representative democracy.

Fourthly, the Government or Supreme Authority hardly took any action against leaders of political parties who are making hate speeches.

Unless the law disqualifies a person from contesting the election for making hate speeches, there will be no effective check on this sensitive issue. (India is already a Hindu Rastra.)

It needs statesmanship amongst all political parties. They should come together and make a Constitutional amendment.

Besides, they can amend the Representation of People Act to debar the mixing of religion and politics.

For example, why should political parties have flags which are so common to their religions? Because it is beyond secularism.

Therefore, the Election Commission of India should not provide permit such flags of some regional parties.

These is a very large, complex, complicated and sensitive subject. But it will require real statesmanship.

Constitution, Harmony, Hindu, India ,Politics

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11TH SEPTEMBER:A REMARKABLE DAY

AFGHANISTAN: THE GRAVEYARD OF EMPEROR’S

Full Independence and Soviet Occupation:

 In 1919 Afghanistan signed the Treaty of Rawalpindi, which ended the Third Anglo- Afghan War and marks Afghanistan’s official date of independence. In the interwar period, Afghanistan again was a balancing point between two world powers; Habibullah’s son Amanullah (ruled 1919–29) skillfully manipulated the new British-Soviet rivalry and established relations with major countries. Amanullah introduced his country’s first constitution in 1923. However, resistance to his domestic reform program forced his abdication in 1929.

In 1933 Amanullah’s nephew Mohammad Zahir Shah, the last king of Afghanistan, began a 40-year reign.After World War II, in which Afghanistan remained neutral, the long-standing division of the Pashtun tribes caused tension with the neighboring state of Pakistan, founded on the other side of the Durand Line in 1948. In response, Afghanistan shifted its foreign policy toward the Soviet Union. The prime minister ship of the king’s cousin Mohammad Daoud (1953–63) was cautiously reformist, modernizing and centralizing the government while strengthening ties with the Soviet Union. However, in 1963 Zahir Shah dismissed Daoud because his anti-Pakistani policy had damaged Afghanistan’s economy.

Mohammad Zahir Shah - King of Afghanistan

Mohammad Zahir Shah, the last King (Badshah) of Afghanistan, reigning for four decades, from 1933 until he was ousted by a coup in 1973.A new constitution, ratified in 1964, liberalized somewhat the constitutional monarchy. However, in the ensuing decade economic and political conditions worsened. In 1973 Daoud overthrew the king and established a republic. When economic conditions did not improve and Daoud lost most of his political support, communist factions overthrew him in 1978. In 1979 the threat of tribal insurgency against the communist government triggered an invasion by 80,000 Soviet troops, who then endured a very effective decade- long guerrilla war. Between 1979 and 1989, two Soviet-sponsored regimes failed to defeat the loose federation of mujahideen guerrillas [who were supported by the US, Pakistan , and Saudi Arabia, note from the editor] that opposed the occupation. In 1988 the Soviet Union agreed to create a neutral Afghan state, and the last Soviet troops left Afghanistan in 1989. The agreement ended a war that killed thousands, devastated industry and agriculture, and created 5 to 6 million refugees.

Civil War and the Taliban: The 1988 agreement did not settle differences between the government and the mujahideen, and in 1992 Afghanistan descended into a civil war that further ravaged the economy. Among the leaders of the warring factions were Ahmad Shah Massoud, an ethnic Tajik; Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, a Pashtun; and Abdul Rashid Dostum, an Uzbek.Despite several temporary alliances, struggles among the armed groups continued until one Islamic fundamentalist group, the Taliban, gained control of most of the country in 1996. The Taliban used an extremist interpretation of Islam to assert repressive control of society. The economy remained in ruins, and most government services ceased.The Taliban granted the Arab terrorist organization al Qaeda the right to use Afghanistan as a base. As al Qaeda committed a series of international terrorist acts culminating in attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, the Taliban rejected international pressure to surrender al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden. When the United States and allies attacked Afghanistan in the fall of 2001, the Taliban government collapsed, but Taliban and al Qaeda leaders escaped. A United States–led International Security Assistance Force began an occupation that is still in place in 2008.Rebuilding the Country: In December 2001, Afghan leaders in exile signed the Bonn Agreement, forming an interim government, the Afghan Interim Administration, under the leadership of the Pashtun moderate Hamid Karzai.

In 2002 Karzai was selected president of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan, whose ruling council included disparate leaders of the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance. A new constitution, written by a specially convened Loya Jirga, or constituent assembly of regional leaders, was ratified in early 2004. In October 2004, an overwhelming popular vote elected Karzai president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. However, regional warlords and large areas of Afghanistan remained beyond the control of the Karzai government.

Despite substantial international aid, the Afghan government, which included representatives from many factions, was unable to address numerous social and economic problems. The parliamentary elections of September 2005 gave regional warlords substantial power in both houses of the National Assembly, further jeopardizing Karzai’s ability to unite the country. The Bonn Agreement lapsed after the 2005 elections.Determined to end the tragic conflict in Afghanistan and promote national reconciliation, lasting peace, stability and respect for human rights in the country

The participants in the UN Talks on Afghanistan of the Afghan Bonn Agreement – December 2001 The agreement’s successor, the Afghanistan Compact, went into effect in January 2006 to set goals for international assistance in economic development, security, protection of human rights, and the fight against corruption and drug trafficking through 2010.

Hamid Karzai, President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, U.S. President Barack Obama and Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari

Hamid Karzai, President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, U.S. President Barack Obama and Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari at an US-Afghan-Pakistan Trilateral meeting in May 2009. In the meantime, the resurgent Taliban intensified terrorist activities in areas beyond government control, particularly the southeastern provinces. In mid-2006, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) forces turned back a Taliban offensive aimed at Kandahar.However, beginning in 2007 the Taliban utilized safe havens in adjacent Pakistan to gradually restore and expand its control in Afghanistan. In early 2008, it controlled an estimated 10 percent of the country while the government controlled only an estimated 30 percent. Local tribes controlled the remaining territory. Despite U.S.-aided efforts to reduce cultivation of poppies for narcotics production, in 2007 and 2008 that crop accounted for an increasing percentage of Afghanistan’s economy and was a major support of the Taliban.In mid-2008, a new International Conference in Support of Afghanistan reaffirmed international commitments to the country’s economic and political stability but demanded improved coordination of aid and reduced corruption. Meanwhile, widespread economic hardship increasingly weakened the Karzai government’s support among the population.

The Pioneer Of New Democracy

Nadir Khan (aka Nadir Shah, shah meaning ‘king’) allowed rural chiefs greater autonomy. Assassinated by a student in 1933, he was succeeded by his 19-year-old son Mohamed Zahir (Zahir Shah). For two decades Zahir Shah was controlled by his two uncles, who were successive Prime Ministers. The second uncle ushered in a ‘liberal parliament’ which sat from 1949 until 1952 when Zahir Shah’s cousin, Daoud, seized control as Prime Minister and in 1955 turned to the Soviet Union for military aid. In 1963 Zahir Shah tried to develop a constitutional monarchy under the ‘New Democracy’ which lasted from 1964 to 1973. During this time intellectuals enjoyed greater freedom; women began to enter the workplace and government. Zahir Shah decided to introduce a more representative form of government, but legislation permitting the existence of political parties was never signed.

Women Empowerment And The Hunger for change

In 1973 the King’s cousin, Daoud, staged a coup, proclaiming Afghanistan a republic and himself President. Cold War rivals, the USSR and the US, poured aid into the country ($2.52 billion and $533 million respectively between 1955 and 1978). During Daoud’s brief rule the country benefited from oil and gas revenues. There were other changes. Women’s rights were confirmed by Daoud. Kabul was now full of students and its University was a hotbed of political ideology – both Communist and Islamic. Women and men studied together and came into contact with foreign teachers. They were hungry for change.

NEW ERA IN AFGHANISTAN:Communism – Afghan-style

On 27 April 1978 Daoud was overthrown and killed in a communist coup (the Sawr Revolution) led by Afghanistan’s People’s Democratic Party (PDPA). Internal conflict soon split the party. The leaders of one faction – Parcham (‘banner’) – were expelled while the other faction, the Khalq (‘the masses’), headed by Noor Mohammed Taraki, took power. The latter attacked Islam, ruled by decree and enjoyed little popular support. Radical reforms sparked local rebellions and army insurrections; troops defected to resistance groups. The USSR increased aid to Taraki’s regime; the US, meanwhile, actively supported resistance groups. Although urged by the Soviets to modify its unpopular policies, the Taraki regime refused. Fearing the US would take advantage of mounting chaos, USSR President Breshnev sent in troops in December 1979. He believed Soviet troops would be able to withdraw after six months.

 AFGHANISTAN TURNED INTO THE USSR’s VIETNAM

Meanwhile Taraki was overthrown, and allegedly suffocated, by party rival Hafizullah Amin, who in turn was killed by Soviet troops entering his palace. The Russians installed as leader Babrak Kamal, head of the Parcham faction, who reversed Taraki’s most unpopular policies and declared allegiance to Islam.

But the presence of foreign troops on Afghan soil had already sparked a national uprising. Soviet forces responded by destroying agriculture and livestock to cut off supplies to the resistance. Russian bombing of villages claimed nearly a million Afghan lives. The KGB-organized secret police spread terror in urban areas. Soviet troop numbers reached 120,000, but still the resistance grew – and became international. Support came via Mujahidin groups exiled in Pakistan which were funded mainly by the US, Saudi Arabia and China.However, the US, determined to make Afghanistan the Russian ‘Vietnam’, poured in money and weapons to arm the opposition through the Pakistani secret intelligence services known as the ISI. The commander receiving most US aid was Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, known to the CIA for his ‘fascist’ and ‘vicious’ tendencies. Intellectuals, especially, were targeted in his murder campaigns. Anti-communist support also came from Britain and Pakistan. By the late 1980s, aid from the US and Saudi Arabia reached around $1 billion per year; while between 1986 and 1990 around $5 billion worth of weapons went to the ‘holy fighters’ of the Afghan Mujahidin.

SOVIET WITHDRAWAL AND THE REIGN OF DR NAJIBULLAHThe occupation claimed at least 14,000 Russian lives and was costing the USSR more than $5 billion a year. New President Mikhail Gorbachev prepared to withdraw, working to leave behind a ‘friendly’ government in Afghanistan. Dr Najibullah, head of the Afghan Intelligence Service, was installed as President. The last Soviet troops were withdrawn in February 1989; the occupation had left 1.5 million Afghans dead, five million disabled, and five million refugees. The Mujahidin were able to capture large parts of Afghanistan, continuing to fight against the Russian puppet, Najubullah. In April 1992 they took Kabul and declared an Islamic state. Burhannaudin Rabbani was elected President, but the Mujahidin victors were far from united and a bitter power struggle ensued.

THE HISTORY OF BATTLING WARLORDS

Commanders Abdul Rashid Dostum and Ahmad Shah Massoud entered Kabul to prevent a takeover of the city by rival warlord Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and his allies. Four main groups, each with their own foreign backers, fought for control of Kabul. In August 1992 the UN reported that more than 1,800 civilians had been killed and 500,000 were fleeing the city. By the end of 1992, Kabul was devastated thanks to the actions of competing warlords; 5,000 people had died and around a million had been displaced. Rape was condoned by most factional leaders. Other cities suffered similar fates. By 1994 at least 20,000 had died – and still the leaders of the warring factions refused to meet. At this point a new force appeared.  

 ENTER THE MILITANT TALIBANA small group of religious students (or taliban) living near Kandahar objected to the behaviour of commanders controlling the area. With support from elements in Pakistan, they launched a military campaign aimed at creating an Islamic state based on strict sharia law.The first city they took was Kandahar, home of their leader Mullah Mohammed Omar, in November 1994. They met little resistance from the war-weary population: the Taliban imposed order, collected weapons, tore down checkpoints to extort money and refused to take bribes. Their version of Islam was harsh, extreme and dogmatic. Educated city-dwellers, especially women, were worst affected. After a while, the Taliban made alliances of convenience and increasingly relied on foreign fighters; torture, killings and other human rights violations committed against civilians intensified.

 THE ROLE OF PAKISTAN & SAUDI GOVERNMENT

An estimated 100,000 Pakistanis trained and fought alongside the Taliban in Afghanistan from 1994-2001. Saudi Arabia provided funds, goods and diplomatic support. Osama bin Laden, a wealthy Saudi who during the Soviet occupation had funded and trained Arab Mujahidin recruits, renewed his support, returning to Afghanistan in 1996. By 2000 the Taliban controlled 90 per cent of Afghan territory, but were only officially recognized by Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and the UAE. Relations with the US were especially hostile. The US accused the Taliban of harbouring Osama bin Laden, suspected mastermind of the 1998 bomb attacks on US embassies in Nairobi and Dar-es-Salaam. This, combined with international concern about extreme oppression of women, and the country’s opium poppy production, prompted two rounds of UN sanctions.

   9/11 AND US ROLE :

 

Certain that Osama bin Laden was behind the 11 September 2001 attacks, the US demanded the Taliban hand him over to face US justice. Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar refused and on 27 October 2001 the US, backed by Britain, launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’. More than 12,000 bombs were dropped in just a few weeks. Fighting on the ground was conducted by Afghan Northern Alliance forces with the support of Coalition Special Forces. On 13 November the Taliban deserted Kabul and the Northern Alliance walked into the city. On 16 December US Secretary of State Colin Powell declared: ‘We have destroyed al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and we have ended the role of Afghanistan as a haven for terrorist activity.’ Al-Qaeda and Taliban leaders fled over the porous border into Pakistan, where they were able to regroup.   

GOVERNANCE AND INSECURITY :

 

In December 2001 the Northern Alliance and elements linked to the former king, Zahir Shah, were brought together in Germany. The result was the Bonn Agreement – a deal between the victorious factions, which included warlords guilty of murder, rape, extortion and rocketing Kabul during the 1990s. An interim authority was set up. A Loya Jirga (or grand assembly) was convened in 2002, headed by Hamid Karzai.In 2004 a new Afghan constitution was ratified and Hamid Karzai was elected President. Parliamentary and provincial elections were held the following year, bringing in a greater proportion of women MPs. After July 2006 the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) took over responsibility for security from the US-led coalition in parts of Afghanistan; fighting and insurgency attacks intensified during 2007.

Taliban are back – what next for Afghanistan?

After 20 years of war, the Taliban have swept to victory in Afghanistan.The group completed their shockingly rapid action across the country by capturing Kabul on 15 August.It comes after foreign forces announced their withdrawal following a deal between the US and the Taliban, two decades after US forces removed the militants from power in 2001.The conflict has killed tens of thousands of people and displaced millions.Taliban forces have pledged not to allow Afghanistan to become a base for terrorists who could threaten the West.But questions are already being asked about how the group will govern the country, and what their rule means for women, human rights, and political freedoms.

Why did the US fight a war in Afghanistan and why did it last so long?

Back in 2001, the US was responding to 9/11 attack in New York and Washington, in which nearly 3,000 people were killed. Officials identified Islamist militant group al-Qaeda, and its leader Osama Bin Laden, as responsible.Bin Laden was in Afghanistan, under the protection of the Taliban, the Islamists who had been in power since 1996.When they refused to hand him over, the US intervened militarily, quickly removing the Taliban and vowing to support democracy and eliminate the terrorist threat.

The militants slipped away and later regrouped.Nato allies had joined the US and a new Afghan government took over in 2004 but deadly Taliban attacks continued. President Barack Obama’s “troop surge” in 2009 helped push back the Taliban but it was not long term.In 2014, at the end of what was the bloodiest year since 2001, Nato’s international forces ended their combat mission, leaving responsibility for security to the Afghan army.That gave the Taliban momentum and they seized more territory.Peace talks between the US and the Taliban started tentatively, with the Afghan government pretty much uninvolved, and the agreement on a withdrawal came in February 2020 in Qatar.The US-Taliban deal did not stop the Taliban attacks – they switched their focus instead to Afghan security forces and civilians, and targeted assassinations. Their areas of control grew.

Who are the Taliban?

They emerged in the civil war that followed the withdrawal of Soviet troops in 1989, predominantly in the south-west and the Pakistan border areas.

Video caption,Full interview: Taliban spokesman Suhail Shaheen speaks to the BBC’s Yalda Hakim

They vowed to fight corruption and improve security, but also followed an austere form of Islam.By 1998, they had taken control of almost all of the country.

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Find out more on the Afghan conflict 2001-2021

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They enforced their own hardline version of Sharia, or Islamic law, and introduced brutal punishments. Men were made to grow beards and women had to wear the all-covering burka. TV, music and cinema were banned.After their overthrow they regrouped in Pakistani border areas.

How costly has the war been?

In terms of lives lost, it is obviously not easy to say exactly. The number of coalition casualties is much better recorded than Taliban and Afghan civilians.Research by Brown University estimates losses in the Afghan security forces at 69,000. It puts the number of civilians and militants killed at about 51,000 each.More than 3,500 coalition soldiers have died since 2001 – about two-thirds of them Americans. More than 20,000 US soldiers have been injured.According to the UN, Afghanistan has the third-largest displaced population in the world.Since 2012, some five million people have fled and not been able to return home, either displaced within Afghanistan or taking refuge in neighbouring countries.Brown University research also puts the US spending on the conflict – including military and reconstruction funds in both Afghanistan and Pakistan – at $978bn (£706bn) up to 2020.

What could happen next?

How the Taliban plan to govern Afghanistan remains unclear.. Taliban spokesman Suhail Shaheen says the group will respect the rights of women and minorities “as per Afghan norms and Islamic values”.On Tuesday, the militants declared an amnesty across Afghanistan and said it wanted women to join its government.But there are fears over women’s freedom to work, to dress as they choose, or even to leave home alone under Taliban rule. 

DURING 1990s :

 

During the 1990s the Taliba forced women to dress in certain ways and denied them equal rights. Another major fear is that the country will once again become a training ground for terrorism.Taliban officials insist that they will fully adhere to the US deal and prevent any group from using Afghan soil as a base for attacks against the US and its allies.They say they aim only to implement an “Islamic government” and will not pose a threat to any other country.But many analysts say the Taliban and al-Qaeda are inseparable, with the latter’s fighters heavily embedded and engaged in training activity.It is also important to remember that the Taliban are not a centralised and unified force. Some leaders may want to keep the West muted by not stirring up trouble but hardliners may be reluctant to break links with al-Qaeda.Just how powerful al-Qaeda is and whether it could now rebuild its global network is also unclear.Then there is the regional branch of the Islamic State group – ISKP (Khorasan Province) – which the Taliban oppose.Like al-Qaeda, ISKP has been degraded by the US and Nato but could use the post-withdrawal period to regroup.Its fighter numbers could be only between a few hundred and 2,000 but it may try to gain footholds in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and parts of Tajikistan, which could be a serious regional concern.

Posted on by Sushil Rudra

Afghanistan is called as the graveyard of emperors. It’s easy to understand why it’s called so. Kings had been ruled out here for a uncertain periods. They ruled this lands for a time being, but ultimately the rulers had to flee from here.

Very recently Taliban fighters captured this lands after American President Mr. Biden administration promised to leave this soil. Last 20 years, Afghanistan was under the control of America, though there’s a local government there headed by Ghoni. But he had to flee from the country due to invasion of militants group, Taliban.

AFGHANISTAN AND ITS SETTLEMENT

Afghanistan was settled at least 5,000 years ago. Early cities such as Mundigak and Balkh sprang up around 5,000 years ago. They likely were affiliated with the Aryan culture of India. Around 700 BCE, the Median Empire expanded its rule to Afghanistan. The Medes were an Indian people, rivals of the Persians.

In the middle ages, up to the 18th century, the region was known as Khorasan. Several important centers of Khorasan are thus located in modern Afghanistan, such as Balkh,Herat, Ghazni and Kabul.

THE POLITICAL HISTORY:

The political history of modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak dynasty, whose founder Mirwais Hotak declared Southern Afghanistan independent in 1709. In 1747, Ahmed Shah Durani established the Durrani Empire with its capital at Kandahar.

WHO FOUNDED AFGHANISTAN ?

So, the first Durrani ruler, Ahmed Shah, is obviously the founder of the Afghan nation. He united the Pushtan tribes and by 1760 built an empire extending to Delhi and the American Sea. The empire fragmented after Ahmed Shah’s death in 1772, but in 1826 Dost Mohammed, the leader of the Pashtun Muhammedzai tribe, restored order.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The Pre-Islamic Period: 

Archaeological evidence indicates that urban civilization began in the region occupied by modern Afghanistan between 3000 and 2000 B.C.

The first historical documents date from the early part of the Iranian Achaemenian Dynasty, which controlled the region from 550 B.C. until 331 B.C. Between 330 and 327 B.C., Alexander the Great defeated the Achaemenian emperor Darius III and subdued local resistance in the territory that is now Afghanistan.

Alexander’s successors, the Seleucids, continued to infuse the region with Greek cultural influence. Shortly thereafter, the Mauryan Empire of India gained control of southern Afghanistan, bringing with it Buddhism.

In the mid-third century B.C., nomadic Kushans established an empire that became a cultural and commercial center. From the end of the Kushan Empire in the third century A.D. until the seventh century, the Iranian Sassanian Empire fragmented this region and was under the general protection.

The Islamic and Mongol Conquests: 

After defeating the Sassanians at the Battle of Qadisiya in 637, Arab Muslims began a 100-year process of conquering the Afghan tribes and introducing Islam. By the tenth century, the rule of the Arab Abbasid Dynasty and its successor in Central Asia, the Samanid dynasty, had crumbled.

The Ghaznavid Dynasty, an offshoot of the Samanids, then became the first great Islamic dynasty to rule in Afghanistan. In 1220 all of Central Asia fell to the Mongol forces of Genghis Khan. Afghanistan remained fragmented until the 1380s, when Timur consolidated and expanded the existing Mongol Empire. Timur’s descendants ruled Afghanistan until the early sixteenth century.

Ahmad Shāh Durrānī, Durrani Empire

Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c.1723–1773), the founder of the Durrani Empire and regarded as the founder of present-day Afghanistan.


 The Pashtun Rulers: 

In 1504 the region fell under a new empire, the Mughals of northern India, who for the next two centuries contested Afghan territory with the Iranian Safavi Dynasty. With the death of the great Safavi leader Nadir Shah in 1747, indigenous Pashtuns, who became known as the Durrani, began a period of at least nominal rule in Afghanistan that lasted until 1978.

The first Durrani ruler, Ahmad Shah, known as the founder of the Afghan nation, united the Pashtun tribes and by 1760 built an empire extending to Delhi and the Arabian Sea. The empire fragmented after Ahmad Shah’s death in 1772, but in 1826 Dost Mohammad, the leader of the Pashtun Muhammadzai tribe, restored order.

Dost Mohammad Khan (1793-1863) was Emir of Afghanistan from 1826–1839 and 1845–1863. He was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty, the two branches of the Barakzai dynasty Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy finally ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah.

The Great Game: 

Dost Mohammad ruled at the beginning of the Great Game, a century-long contest for domination of Central Asia and Afghanistan between Russia, which was expanding to the south, and Britain, which was intent on protecting India.

During this period, Afghan rulers were able to maintain virtual independence, although some compromises were necessary. In the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839–42), the British deposed Dost Mohammad, but they abandoned their Afghan garrisons in 1842.

In the following decades, Russian forces approached the northern border of Afghanistan. In 1878 the British invaded and held most of Afghanistan in the Second Anglo-Afghan War.

Amir Abdur Rahman, Emir of Afghanistan

Amir Abdur Rahman was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.
 In 1880 Abdur Rahman, a Durrani, began a 21-year reign that saw the balancing of British and Russian interests, the consolidation of the Afghan tribes, and the reorganization of civil administration into what is considered the modern Afghan state.

During this period, the British secured the Durand Line (1893), dividing Afghanistan from British colonial territory to the southeast and sowing the seeds of future tensions over the division of the Pashtun tribes. Abdur Rahman’s son Habibullah (ruled 1901–19) continued his father’s administrative reforms and maintained Afghanistan’s neutrality in World War I.

Full Independence and Soviet Occupation:

 In 1919 Afghanistan signed the Treaty of Rawalpindi, which ended the Third Anglo- Afghan War and marks Afghanistan’s official date of independence.

In the interwar period, Afghanistan again was a balancing point between two world powers; Habibullah’s son Amanullah (ruled 1919–29) skillfully manipulated the new British-Soviet rivalry and established relations with major countries.

Amanullah introduced his country’s first constitution in 1923. However, resistance to his domestic reform program forced his abdication in 1929. In 1933 Amanullah’s nephew Mohammad Zahir Shah, the last king of Afghanistan, began a 40-year reign.

After World War II, in which Afghanistan remained neutral, the long-standing division of the Pashtun tribes caused tension with the neighboring state of Pakistan, founded on the other side of the Durand Line in 1948. In response, Afghanistan shifted its foreign policy toward the Soviet Union.

The prime minister ship of the king’s cousin Mohammad Daoud (1953–63) was cautiously reformist, modernizing and centralizing the government while strengthening ties with the Soviet Union. However, in 1963 Zahir Shah dismissed Daoud because his anti-Pakistani policy had damaged Afghanistan’s economy.

Mohammad Zahir Shah - King of Afghanistan


Mohammad Zahir Shah
, the last King (Badshah) of Afghanistan, reigning for four decades, from 1933 until he was ousted by a coup in 1973.

A new constitution, ratified in 1964, liberalized somewhat the constitutional monarchy. However, in the ensuing decade economic and political conditions worsened. In 1973 Daoud overthrew the king and established a republic.

When economic conditions did not improve and Daoud lost most of his political support, communist factions overthrew him in 1978. In 1979 the threat of tribal insurgency against the communist government triggered an invasion by 80,000 Soviet troops, who then endured a very effective decade- long guerrilla war.

Between 1979 and 1989, two Soviet-sponsored regimes failed to defeat the loose federation of mujahideen guerrillas [who were supported by the US, Pakistan , and Saudi Arabia, note from the editor] that opposed the occupation.

In 1988 the Soviet Union agreed to create a neutral Afghan state, and the last Soviet troops left Afghanistan in 1989. The agreement ended a war that killed thousands, devastated industry and agriculture, and created 5 to 6 million refugees.

Civil War and the Taliban: 

The 1988 agreement did not settle differences between the government and the mujahideen, and in 1992 Afghanistan descended into a civil war that further ravaged the economy. Among the leaders of the warring factions were Ahmad Shah Massoud, an ethnic Tajik; Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, a Pashtun; and Abdul Rashid Dostum, an Uzbek.

Despite several temporary alliances, struggles among the armed groups continued until one Islamic fundamentalist group, the Taliban, gained control of most of the country in 1996. The Taliban used an extremist interpretation of Islam to assert repressive control of society. The economy remained in ruins, and most government services ceased.

The Taliban granted the Arab terrorist organization al Qaeda the right to use Afghanistan as a base. As al Qaeda committed a series of international terrorist acts culminating in attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, the Taliban rejected international pressure to surrender al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.

When the United States and allies attacked Afghanistan in the fall of 2001, the Taliban government collapsed, but Taliban and al Qaeda leaders escaped. A United States–led International Security Assistance Force began an occupation that is still in place in 2008.

Rebuilding the Country: 

In December 2001, Afghan leaders in exile signed the Bonn Agreement, forming an interim government, the Afghan Interim Administration, under the leadership of the Pashtun moderate Hamid Karzai.

In 2002 Karzai was selected president of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan, whose ruling council included disparate leaders of the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance. A new constitution, written by a specially convened Loya Jirga, or constituent assembly of regional leaders, was ratified in early 2004.

In October 2004, an overwhelming popular vote elected Karzai president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. However, regional warlords and large areas of Afghanistan remained beyond the control of the Karzai government.

Despite substantial international aid, the Afghan government, which included representatives from many factions, was unable to address numerous social and economic problems.

The parliamentary elections of September 2005 gave regional warlords substantial power in both houses of the National Assembly, further jeopardizing Karzai’s ability to unite the country. The Bonn Agreement lapsed after the 2005 elections.

Determined to end the tragic conflict in Afghanistan and promote national reconciliation, lasting peace, stability and respect for human rights in the country , the participants in the UN Talks on Afghanistan of the Afghan Bonn Agreement – December 2001.


 The agreement’s successor, the Afghanistan Compact, went into effect in January 2006 to set goals for international assistance in economic development, security, protection of human rights, and the fight against corruption and drug trafficking through 2010.

Hamid Karzai, President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, U.S. President Barack Obama and Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari


Hamid Karzai, President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, U.S. President Barack Obama and Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari at an US-Afghan-Pakistan Trilateral meeting in May 2009.


 In the meantime, the resurgent Taliban intensified terrorist activities in areas beyond government control, particularly the southeastern provinces. In mid-2006, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) forces turned back a Taliban offensive aimed at Kandahar.

However, beginning in 2007 the Taliban utilized safe havens in adjacent Pakistan to gradually restore and expand its control in Afghanistan. In early 2008, it controlled an estimated 10 percent of the country while the government controlled only an estimated 30 percent. Local tribes controlled the remaining territory.

Despite U.S.-aided efforts to reduce cultivation of poppies for narcotics production, in 2007 and 2008 that crop accounted for an increasing percentage of Afghanistan’s economy and was a major support of the Taliban.

In mid-2008, a new International Conference in Support of Afghanistan reaffirmed international commitments to the country’s economic and political stability but demanded improved coordination of aid and reduced corruption. Meanwhile, widespread economic hardship increasingly weakened the Karzai government’s support among the population.

The Pioneer Of New Democracy

Nadir Khan (aka Nadir Shah, shah meaning ‘king’) allowed rural chiefs greater autonomy. Assassinated by a student in 1933, he was succeeded by his 19-year-old son Mohamed Zahir (Zahir Shah). For two decades Zahir Shah was controlled by his two uncles, who were successive Prime Ministers.

The second uncle ushered in a ‘liberal parliament’ which sat from 1949 until 1952 when Zahir Shah’s cousin, Daoud, seized control as Prime Minister and in 1955 turned to the Soviet Union for military aid.

In 1963 Zahir Shah tried to develop a constitutional monarchy under the ‘New Democracy’ which lasted from 1964 to 1973. During this time intellectuals enjoyed greater freedom; women began to enter the workplace and government.

Zahir Shah decided to introduce a more representative form of government, but legislation permitting the existence of political parties was never signed.

Women Empowerment And The Hunger for change

In 1973 the King’s cousin, Daoud, staged a coup, proclaiming Afghanistan a republic and himself President. Cold War rivals, the USSR and the US, poured aid into the country ($2.52 billion and $533 million respectively between 1955 and 1978).

During Daoud’s brief rule the country benefited from oil and gas revenues. There were other changes. Women’s rights were confirmed by Daoud. Kabul was now full of students and its University was a hotbed of political ideology – both Communist and Islamic. Women and men studied together and came into contact with foreign teachers. They were hungry for change.

NEW ERA IN AFGHANISTAN:

Communism – Afghan-style

On 27 April 1978 Daoud was overthrown and killed in a communist coup (the Sawr Revolution) led by Afghanistan’s People’s Democratic Party (PDPA). Internal conflict soon split the party. The leaders of one faction – Parcham (‘banner’) – were expelled while the other faction, the Khalq (‘the masses’), headed by Noor Mohammed Taraki, took power.

The latter attacked Islam, ruled by decree and enjoyed little popular support. Radical reforms sparked local rebellions and army insurrections; troops defected to resistance groups. The USSR increased aid to Taraki’s regime; the US, meanwhile, actively supported resistance groups.

Although urged by the Soviets to modify its unpopular policies, the Taraki regime refused. Fearing the US would take advantage of mounting chaos, USSR President Breshnev sent in troops in December 1979. He believed Soviet troops would be able to withdraw after six months.

 AFGHANISTAN TURNED INTO THE USSR’s VIETNAM

Meanwhile Taraki was overthrown, and allegedly suffocated, by party rival Hafizullah Amin, who in turn was killed by Soviet troops entering his palace. The Russians installed as leader Babrak Kamal, head of the Parcham faction, who reversed Taraki’s most unpopular policies and declared allegiance to Islam.

But the presence of foreign troops on Afghan soil had already sparked a national uprising. Soviet forces responded by destroying agriculture and livestock to cut off supplies to the resistance. Russian bombing of villages claimed nearly a million Afghan lives.

The KGB-organized secret police spread terror in urban areas. Soviet troop numbers reached 120,000, but still the resistance grew – and became international. Support came via Mujahidin groups exiled in Pakistan which were funded mainly by the US, Saudi Arabia and China.

However, the US, determined to make Afghanistan the Russian ‘Vietnam’, poured in money and weapons to arm the opposition through the Pakistani secret intelligence services known as the ISI. The commander receiving most US aid was Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, known to the CIA for his ‘fascist’ and ‘vicious’ tendencies.

Intellectuals, especially, were targeted in his murder campaigns. Anti-communist support also came from Britain and Pakistan. By the late 1980s, aid from the US and Saudi Arabia reached around $1 billion per year; while between 1986 and 1990 around $5 billion worth of weapons went to the ‘holy fighters’ of the Afghan Mujahidin.

SOVIET WITHDRAWAL AND THE REIGN OF DR NAJIBULLAH

The occupation claimed at least 14,000 Russian lives and was costing the USSR more than $5 billion a year. New President Mikhail Gorbachev prepared to withdraw, working to leave behind a ‘friendly’ government in Afghanistan. Dr Najibullah, head of the Afghan Intelligence Service, was installed as President.

The last Soviet troops were withdrawn in February 1989; the occupation had left 1.5 million Afghans dead, five million disabled, and five million refugees. The Mujahidin were able to capture large parts of Afghanistan, continuing to fight against the Russian puppet, Najubullah.

In April 1992 they took Kabul and declared an Islamic state. Burhannaudin Rabbani was elected President, but the Mujahidin victors were far from united and a bitter power struggle ensued.

THE HISTORY OF BATTLING WARLORDS

Commanders Abdul Rashid Dostum and Ahmad Shah Massoud entered Kabul to prevent a takeover of the city by rival warlord Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and his allies. Four main groups, each with their own foreign backers, fought for control of Kabul.

In August 1992 the UN reported that more than 1,800 civilians had been killed and 500,000 were fleeing the city. By the end of 1992, Kabul was devastated thanks to the actions of competing warlords; 5,000 people had died and around a million had been displaced. Rape was condoned by most factional leaders. Other cities suffered similar fates. By 1994 at least 20,000 had died – and still the leaders of the warring factions refused to meet. At this point a new force appeared.

   ENTER THE MILITANT TALIBAN

A small group of religious students (or taliban) living near Kandahar objected to the behaviour of commanders controlling the area. With support from elements in Pakistan, they launched a military campaign aimed at creating an Islamic state based on strict sharia law.

The first city they took was Kandahar, home of their leader Mullah Mohammed Omar, in November 1994. They met little resistance from the war-weary population: the Taliban imposed order, collected weapons, tore down checkpoints to extort money and refused to take bribes.

Their version of Islam was harsh, extreme and dogmatic. Educated city-dwellers, especially women, were worst affected. After a while, the Taliban made alliances of convenience and increasingly relied on foreign fighters; torture, killings and other human rights violations committed against civilians intensified.

 THE ROLE OF PAKISTAN & SAUDI GOVERNMENT

An estimated 100,000 Pakistanis trained and fought alongside the Taliban in Afghanistan from 1994-2001. Saudi Arabia provided funds, goods and diplomatic support. Osama bin Laden, a wealthy Saudi who during the Soviet occupation had funded and trained Arab Mujahidin recruits, renewed his support, returning to Afghanistan in 1996.

By 2000 the Taliban controlled 90 per cent of Afghan territory, but were only officially recognized by Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and the UAE. Relations with the US were especially hostile.

The US accused the Taliban of harbouring Osama bin Laden, suspected mastermind of the 1998 bomb attacks on US embassies in Nairobi and Dar-es-Salaam. This, combined with international concern about extreme oppression of women, and the country’s opium poppy production, prompted two rounds of UN sanctions.

   9/11 AND US ROLE :

Certain that Osama bin Laden was behind the 11 September 2001 attacks, the US demanded the Taliban hand him over to face US justice. Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar refused and on 27 October 2001 the US, backed by Britain, launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’. More than 12,000 bombs were dropped in just a few weeks.

Fighting on the ground was conducted by Afghan Northern Alliance forces with the support of Coalition Special Forces. On 13 November the Taliban deserted Kabul and the Northern Alliance walked into the city.

On 16 December US Secretary of State Colin Powell declared: ‘We have destroyed al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and we have ended the role of Afghanistan as a haven for terrorist activity.’ Al-Qaeda and Taliban leaders fled over the porous border into Pakistan, where they were able to regroup.

   GOVERNANCE AND INSECURITY :

In December 2001 the Northern Alliance and elements linked to the former king, Zahir Shah, were brought together in Germany. The result was the Bonn Agreement – a deal between the victorious factions, which included warlords guilty of murder, rape, extortion and rocketing Kabul during the 1990s. An interim authority was set up. A Loya Jirga (or grand assembly) was convened in 2002, headed by Hamid Karzai.

In 2004 a new Afghan constitution was ratified and Hamid Karzai was elected President. Parliamentary and provincial elections were held the following year, bringing in a greater proportion of women MPs. After July 2006 the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) took over responsibility for security from the US-led coalition in parts of Afghanistan; fighting and insurgency attacks intensified during 2007.

Taliban are back – what next for Afghanistan?

After 20 years of war, the Taliban have swept to victory in Afghanistan.

The group completed their shockingly rapid action across the country by capturing Kabul on 15 August.

It comes after foreign forces announced their withdrawal following a deal between the US and the Taliban, two decades after US forces removed the militants from power in 2001.

The conflict has killed tens of thousands of people and displaced millions.

Taliban forces have pledged not to allow Afghanistan to become a base for terrorists who could threaten the West.

But questions are already being asked about how the group will govern the country, and what their rule means for women, human rights, and political freedoms.

Why did the US fight a war in Afghanistan and why did it last so long?

Back in 2001, the US was responding to 9/11 attack in New York and Washington, in which nearly 3,000 people were killed. Officials identified Islamist militant group al-Qaeda, and its leader Osama Bin Laden, as responsible.

Bin Laden was in Afghanistan, under the protection of the Taliban, the Islamists who had been in power since 1996.

When they refused to hand him over, the US intervened militarily, quickly removing the Taliban and vowing to support democracy and eliminate the terrorist threat.

The militants slipped away and later regrouped.

Nato allies had joined the US and a new Afghan government took over in 2004 but deadly Taliban attacks continued. President Barack Obama’s “troop surge” in 2009 helped push back the Taliban but it was not long term.

In 2014, at the end of what was the bloodiest year since 2001, Nato’s international forces ended their combat mission, leaving responsibility for security to the Afghan army.

That gave the Taliban momentum and they seized more territory.

Peace talks between the US and the Taliban started tentatively, with the Afghan government pretty much uninvolved, and the agreement on a withdrawal came in February 2020 in Qatar.

The US-Taliban deal did not stop the Taliban attacks – they switched their focus instead to Afghan security forces and civilians, and targeted assassinations. Their areas of control grew.

Who are the Taliban?

They emerged in the civil war that followed the withdrawal of Soviet troops in 1989, predominantly in the south-west and the Pakistan border areas.

Video caption,Full interview: Taliban spokesman Suhail Shaheen speaks to the BBC’s Yalda Hakim

They vowed to fight corruption and improve security, but also followed an austere form of Islam.

By 1998, they had taken control of almost all of the country.

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Find out more on the Afghan conflict 2001-2021

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They enforced their own hardline version of Sharia, or Islamic law, and introduced brutal punishments. Men were made to grow beards and women had to wear the all-covering burka. TV, music and cinema were banned.

After their overthrow they regrouped in Pakistani border areas.

How costly has the war been?

In terms of lives lost, it is obviously not easy to say exactly. The number of coalition casualties is much better recorded than Taliban and Afghan civilians.

Research by Brown University estimates losses in the Afghan security forces at 69,000. It puts the number of civilians and militants killed at about 51,000 each.

More than 3,500 coalition soldiers have died since 2001 – about two-thirds of them Americans. More than 20,000 US soldiers have been injured.

According to the UN, Afghanistan has the third-largest displaced population in the world.

Since 2012, some five million people have fled and not been able to return home, either displaced within Afghanistan or taking refuge in neighbouring countries.

Brown University research also puts the US spending on the conflict – including military and reconstruction funds in both Afghanistan and Pakistan – at $978bn (£706bn) up to 2020.

What could happen next?

How the Taliban plan to govern Afghanistan remains unclear.. Taliban spokesman Suhail Shaheen says the group will respect the rights of women and minorities “as per Afghan norms and Islamic values”.

On Tuesday, the militants declared an amnesty across Afghanistan and said it wanted women to join its government.

But there are fears over women’s freedom to work, to dress as they choose, or even to leave home alone under Taliban rule.

DURING 1990s :

During the 1990s the Taliba forced women to dress in certain ways and denied them equal rights

Another major fear is that the country will once again become a training ground for terrorism.

Taliban officials insist that they will fully adhere to the US deal and prevent any group from using Afghan soil as a base for attacks against the US and its allies.

They say they aim only to implement an “Islamic government” and will not pose a threat to any other country.

But many analysts say the Taliban and al-Qaeda are inseparable, with the latter’s fighters heavily embedded and engaged in training activity.

It is also important to remember that the Taliban are not a centralised and unified force. Some leaders may want to keep the West muted by not stirring up trouble but hardliners may be reluctant to break links with al-Qaeda.

Just how powerful al-Qaeda is and whether it could now rebuild its global network is also unclear.

Then there is the regional branch of the Islamic State group – ISKP (Khorasan Province) – which the Taliban oppose.

Like al-Qaeda, ISKP has been degraded by the US and Nato but could use the post-withdrawal period to regroup.

Its fighter numbers could be only between a few hundred and 2,000 but it may try to gain footholds in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and parts of Tajikistan, which could be a serious regional concern.

Read more:

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THE LORE OF THE DROWNED

Hopkins : The Pepsodent – man

Dr. Sushil Rudra

His name is Claude Hopkins – an American, famous for his toothpaste” Pepsodent” and became a very rich man for his multi-national businesses. So, he was famous for the name: ” Hopkins: The Pepsodent- man” and it was possible to him for his power of habit.

But how?

It was the early 1900. One day one of his best friends approached Hopkins with a new business idea. The friend had discovered an amazing product. He explained, that he was convinced would be a hit. It was toothpaste, a minty, frothy concoction he called ” Pepsodent”.

There were some dicey investors involved and another, it was rumoured, was connected to the mob – but this venture, the friend promised, was going to be huge. If, this is, Hopkins would consent to help design a national promotional campaign.

We came to know from different sources that, Hopkins, at that time, was at the top of a booming industry that had hardly existed a few decades earlier: advertising.

Hopkins : The Pepsodent – man was business – ads – man who had convinced Americans to buy Schlitz beer by boosting that the company cleaned their bottles ” with live steam”, while neglecting to mention that every other company used the exact same method.

There is another incident, Hopkins: the Pepsodent- man, had succeed to introduce in America. It is Palmolive soap which was used in every household of America by dint of his powerful habits.

He had seduced millions of women into purchasing Palmolive soap by proclaiming that Cleopatra had washed with it, despite the sputtering protests of outraged historians.

Hopkins : The Pepsodent – man, with the power of habits, had to introduce so many items in the market and succeeded.

For example, he had made Puffed Wheat famous by saying that it was ” shot from guns ” until the grains puffed to eight times normal size.

Hopkins had turned dozens of previously unknown products – Quaker Oats, Goodyear tires, the Bissell carpet sweeper, Van Camp’s pork and beans – into household names.

And in process, he had made himself so rich that his best-selling autobiography, My life in Advertising, devoted long passages to the difficulties of spending so much money.

∆∆ HOPKINS: THE PEPSODENT – MAN

HOPKINS Was best known for a series of rules he coined explaining how to create new habits among consumers. These rules would transform industries and eventually became conventional wisdom among marketers, educational reformers, public health professionals, politicians, and CEOs.

Even today, Hopkins’s rules influence everything from how we buy cleaning supplies to the tools governments use for eradicating the disease. They are fundamental to creating any new routine.

However, when his old friend approached Hopkins about Pepsodent, the ad man expressed only mild interest. It was no secret that the health of Americans’ teeth was in steep decline.

Why such conditions?

As the nation had become wealthier, people had started buying larger amounts of sugary, processed foods. When government started drafting men for World War 1, so many recruits had rotting teeth that officials said poor dental hygiene was a national security risk.

Of course, Hopkins knew that selling toothpaste was financial suicide. He noticed, there was already an army of the door to door salesman hawking dubious tooth powders and panaceas, most of them going broke.

The truth was that hardly anyone bought toothpaste because, despite the nation’s dental problems, hardly anyone brushed their teeth.

Naturally, Hopkins gave his friend’s proposal a bit of thought and then declined. He would stick with soaps and cereals. He said, ” I didn’t see a way to educate the laity in technical tooth-paste theories”- Hopkins explained in his autobiography.

However, his friend was persistent. He didn’t give up his hopes. But again and again continued to appeal to Hopkins. And eventually, as man, Hopkins had considered his friend’s proposal.

He wrote :

” I finally agreed to undertake the campaign if he gave me a six months’ option on a block of stock”.

It would be the wisest financial decision of Hopkins’s life. Within five years of that partnership, Hopkins turned Pepsodent into one of the best known products on earth and, in the process, helped create a tooth-brushing habit that moved across America with startling speed.

Soon, everyone from New York to California and almost all over the country was bragging about their ” PEPSODENT SMILE ”.

Gradually, by 1930, Pepsodent sold in China, South Africa, Brazil, Germany, and almost anywhere else. Hopkins could buy ads. A decade after the first Pepsodent campaign, toothbrushing had become a ritual for more than half the American population.

So, Hopkins was the man who had established toothbrushing as a regular habit.

Of course, there was a secret behind this success. Hopkins would later boast, was that he had found a certain kind of cue and reward that fuelled a particular habit.

It’s an alchemy so powerful that even today the basic principles are still used by food companies, hospitals, and millions of salesmen around the world.

Eugene Pauly taught us about the habit loop, but it’s Claude Hopkins that showed how new habits can be cultivated and grown.

So what he did?

He had created a craving. And that craving, it turns out, is what makes cues and rewards work. That craving is what powers the habit loop.

However, it is found that approximately 43% of daily behaviours are performed out of habits. New behaviours can become automatic through the process of habit formation.

Swami Vivekananda, the great Indian monk, told :

” Habit is one’s second nature, and habit is one’s first nature too. All that is in your nature is the result of habit, and habit is the result of experience”.

However, Hopkins had tried to incorporate the craving into the public that they could purchase and use the items. And succeed.

To sell Pepsodent, Hopkins required a trigger that would justify the toothpaste’s daily use. He also resolved to advertise this toothpaste as a creator of beauty. To get these ideas , Hopkins had to study a pile of dental textbooks.

Hopkins’s Conception Of The Pepsodent Habit Loop/Hopkins:the Pepsodent- man/imageThe Pepsodent – man / image: kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

Hopkins wrote:

” It was dry reading… but in the middle of one book I found a reference to the mucin plaques on teeth, which I afterwards called ‘ the film’. That gave me an appealing idea.

I resolved to advertise this toothpaste as a creator of beauty. To deal with that cloudy film.”

Now we will try to understand the feelings of Hopkins about tooth film. In fine, in directing tooth film, Hopkins was ignoring the fact that this same film has always covered people’s teeth. And that’s why he had not seemed to bother anyone.

The film is a naturally occurring membrane. It builds upon teeth regardless of what you eat. Or how often you brush. People had never paid much attention to it. And therefore, there was little reason why they should:

For instance,

You can get rid of the film by eating an apple. Or running your finger over your teeth, brushing. vigorously swirling liquid around your mouth. Toothpaste didn’t do anything to help remove the film.

Some dental researchers also said that all toothpastes – particularly Pepsodent , were worthless. But that didn’t stop Hopkins from exploiting his discovery.

He tried to make a cue that could trigger a habit. Soon, the advertisement of Pepsodent had plastered in the cities.

One is here: ” Just run your tongue across your teeth,”. ” You’ll feel a film – that is what makes your teeth look ” off color” and invites decay.

Another: ” Note how many pretty teeth are seen everywhere.”

Again another ads : ” Millions are using a new method of teeth cleansing. Why would any woman have dingy film on her teeth? Pepsodent removes the film!”

Let’s see the language of the ads. How brilliant it is! The brilliance of these appeals was that they relied upon a cue – tooth film. – that was universal and impossible to ignore.

Hopkins The Pepsodent – man, had found a cue. That was simple, had existed for ages. And it was so easy to trigger that an advertisement could cause people to comply automatically.

Moreover, the reward, as Hopkins envisioned it, was even more enticing. So, it’s clear that everyone want to be more beautiful. Who doesn’t want a brighter smile?

Next, it is history. Within three years, the Pepsodent toothpaste went marketing throughout the world. And within a decade, it was one of the top-selling goods in the world.

Pepsodent remained America’s best – selling toothpaste for three decades.

In American household, only 7%(percent) had a tube of toothpaste in their shelf before Pepsodent came to market.

Read more:The First Love Of Rabindranath Thakur, /

Hopkins started campaigning for Pepsodent in America. During this period, peoples did not purchase any toothpaste.

But after a decade, its consumption had jumped to 65%. At that time American military had to clean their teeth perfectly.

Even there had no provision to recruit orally defected person in the military. So the demand for pepsodent raised.

HOPKINS: THE PEPSODENT – MAN /AUTOBIOGRAPHY :

Therefore, Hopkins got the privilege to marketing Pepsodent massively. ” I made for myself a million dollars on Pepsodent.” He wrote after few years about his success. This product was already on every shelf of the American household.

Again he described in his autobiography – ” The key to success was his deep and profound knowledge of the right human psychology. That psychology had two basic rules: First, find a simple and obvious cue. Second, clearly define the rewards.”

This two rules had acted like magic. He had identified a cue – tooth film and a reward, that’s beautiful teeth. It had persuaded millions to start a daily ritual.

Finally, Hopkins’s ad theory got universal rules into practice in marketing. Motivation & Habit( how to reach the goal/kalpatarurudra.org)

Dr Sushil Rudra

INFORMATION ABOUT MY RECENT BLOGGING

How To Overcome The Breakup Situation?

 Sushil Rudra

Don’t grief for the past, it’s a impetuosity, passion or emotion

/How to overcome the breakup situation?/image:kalpatarurudra.org/jpg
How to overcome the breakup situation ?/image:kalpatarurudra.org/jpg
How to overcome the breakup situation?/THE PRACTICAL LABORATORY OF SREE RAMAKRISHNA(image:kalpatarurudra.org/jpg
How to overcome the breakup situation?
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How to overcome the breakup situation? (image:kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

Intro:

We have to face so many troubles and sufferings in course of our life – journey and of course, no one is perfectly fine and happy in this materialistic world. Therefore, it is an urgent need how to overcome the breakup situation?

In fact, each and everyone has to face a breakup or hurt in life. But at that moment, we have nothing to do. Moreover, we couldn’t express outside of the family.

Though we desire to have a successful life in all spheres of our lives. But we couldn’t able to reach the goal perfectly. Thus, we become disrupted mentally and socially.

Because, real-life, which we lead in everyday life is very important to us, and it’s related to our food and lodging, education, the safety of our

lives, savings and so on.

So there is uncertainty and also competition in this regard.

Hence,these are all our primary needs. Without all these, we have to face trafficking and suffering a lot. And as a result, we couldn’t get success. But we have to make an effort for our sweet home, food and lodging for survival.

Other than all these requirements, we live in a society. So we have some duties and responsibilities for the betterment of it.

But some can maintain it and some aren’t. So the progress of society is not possible.

As a result, we are thus having societal bandages, so that we try to maintain values and ethics through our activities and behaviours.

So when it’s not maintained properly, a mental and societal misapprehension takes place.

∆∆ The Breakup Situation /http://kalpatarurudra.org /WORDS ARE NOT SAFE

As a result, our prime problem in this modern era is that we are not contented with our success in the profession.

Why words Are Not Safe in life and love?/http://kalpatarurudra.org

Besides, we are not satisfied with our life partner. It may be husband or wife, or lovers of both sexes.

Recently I have read a poetry blog of a young woman , and there she has written about the breaking up of their relationship.

∆∆ The Breakup Case :1 The young lady is unable to forget the words of betrayal to whom she loved profoundly, but being rejected she is spending in an unhappy life.

Naturally, she is under stress and even her family members are not happy.

This kind of incidents is not supported. Obviously, It’s a matter of an unhealthy mind. In such a case, we see a lack of values and ethics.

Hence, we must not support it. After a long term relationship or friendship, the guy suddenly cut off the relationship.

But it is unjust. Under these circumstances, it is needed how to overcome the breakup situation.

Read more : ” Why words are not safe in life and love ” – kalpatarurudra.org

Either it’s the symbol of week or ill – state of mind. Or they’re running for a better option. In this respect, she should be strict to her principles and never get lost at all.

During this situation the family members need su ort for the girl. Thus they would be able to overcome this situation.

That’s why, there are so many incidents like this. Occasionally it happens in our surrounding. And sometime, they are to separate with each other.

As a result, one becomes perplexed and are to face a mental illness like depression, stress and strain, melancholic distress etc.

Hence, We have to face this kind of small but serious troubles in our lives.

How to overcome breakup situation?/image:kalpatarurudra.org/jpg /Couples

∆∆

Now the question is how to overcome this type of awkward situation. We are not only individually affected, besides, our parents at the same time are also confronting this situation.

∆∆ CASE NO:02

For instance, I know an incident like this which recently occurred in my friend circle. They are my family friends and they’re arranging their daughter’s wedding.

The young man is a good service holder. And their daughter is also working in IT sector in a good position.

So, both the parties are talking about the negotiations and advanced a lot into a final decision too.

In the meantime, 3 months already passed and almost every day both the two ( boy and girl) over the phone were busy discussing their future dreaming. 

Suddenly the elder sister of the young guy and her husband informed them that they do not agree on this negotiation. What a strange!

So this is a bolt from the blue to them. And they’re not ready for this. I think this breakup made them unhappy. So how to overcome the breakup situation?

Perhaps they don’t want a woman who is engaged in a profession. Therefore, it has a massive impact on the family as well as on their daughter. So They are highly shocked. So it’s not expected at all.

∆∆ DUTY OF A GUARDIAN. ( How to overcome the breakup situation?)

I am very soft hearted person. Hence, I feel very dejection when I listen to and face such conditions.

As a guardian or a parent , I couldn’t stay indifferent having learnt that kind of incidents.Consequently, I become angry.

But I try to make them understand that don’t take this matter seriously. Therefore, It’s the life . Let see better guy for your daughter.

http://kalpatarurudra.org /Come forward one step

Perhaps it’s the wish of God , etc and etc. However, This is a regular feature in our society.

∆∆ SO, Here are the rules:

Firstly, Love each other, but take time to understand each other . Though it’s very difficult to see the inner world of the individual. Even after spending a lot of time in

Secondly,  Don’t believe in sweet words of the lover or partner . So enjoy the words, but try to familiar with his difficulties.

Third, never forgot your personality . Whenever it’s being hurt , you then cautiously step your feet . So, never sacrifice your personality in virtue of getting him.

Because time indeed has changed. Like Radha, you should not sacrifice everything, especially your personality.

Fourth,  Don’t live together before marriage. Indian, mainly Hindus , maintain holiness and sanctity before marriage.

Read more : http://kalpatarurudra.org /Repentance in life

So both man and woman should follow up with the principles in respect to this matter. Furthermore, we should have to be more practical.

Fifth,  As we are human beings, not animals, so we should be careful about discrimination. Though we have some biological demands, we should act according to social customs. But sometimes, we forget it and spending like a married couple. So, it was right.

Moreover, we should be prepared to overcome the breakup situation.

Hence, we never crossed the borderline. And our motto is to achieve a higher state of mind. The more we will be enriched in this path, the more we must have reached nearer tGod.

Therefore, this positive state of mind can eliminate the distraction.

How to overcome the breakup situation/image:kalpatarurudra.com/jpg

Sixth, the ultimate goal is to reach out to the highest state of mind.

Seven, If we attain this state of our thoughts, of course, we will be freed up from all the worldly hazards. Otherwise, you have to face the sufferings.

Eight, In ancient times, man used to spend in the house of Guru. There he learnt and practised the rules and activities of worldly affairs. They also maintained the stage of celibate life.

But we are now devoid of it. Our education system or curriculum don’t entertain this aspect. On the contrary, we memorise some facts which are not related to our daily life. So when we enter into conjugal life we have to face such problems.

But in the ancient era, the disciples also used to learn there how to overcome the breakup situations which take place in life.

Finally, the last word is how to overcome the breakup situation?

Eventually, both parties should come front to front to take a final decision.

It’s fact that when a girl is betrayed by his loving one it’s not her fault. Because She has a pure heart which she gives him.

But the guy is heartless as well as brute and clumsy minded. So, he is not, in the true sense, a perfect man or a human being. Rather, he has lacked of some compassionate qualities.

Of course, both of them didn’t know how to overcome the breakup situation. So sometimes mishap takes place in the society.

So, I think truly that each and everyone here should glorify to his or her heart. And this is vital rule about how to overcome the breakup situation.( ShoutMeloud.com)

Moral: Don’t trust the rouges.

Read other articles here( ” kalpatarurudra.org)/Love Never Wiped Away From This World .# ‘ Winds touch me’# ‘Rabi Thakurer Gaan ‘ # Poems ‘ You and Me“.

BENGAL MELA IN WINTER

BENGAL MELA(FAIR)IN WINTER

” Fair” meaning in Bengali ” Mela “. Mela is a place of assimilation. Peoples come together for enjoyment here , or to purchase something. Some visit to get various types of foods, drinks, dessert etc. Bengal Mela in Winter is a regular feature in West Bengal.

Bengal Mela in winter is like a social ceremony. Every year local committees organize various types of Mela. It’s Agricultural Mela, Handicraft Mela, Food fair, Pous Mela, Book Fair etc.

Image:Bengal Mela in Winter /image: www.kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

Mela(fair) in Winter is a special event. So we wait for it to enjoy with friends.

In fact, Winter in Bengal remains as a foreigners. It lingers very short period.

With numerous birds from aboard

seasonally come to visit here in Bengal. They take shelter in the lakes of Bengal.

Spreading their presence with their beautiful

songs. It’s in different scale and voice. It spreads a divine environment around the Places.

As a result, tourists from different corner of Bengal and other provinces used to visit there with their families.

Bengal Mela(fair)in winter is a special ceremony here. So there are choruibhati(feast in the remote places), the special events in Winter.

I have lots of memories of it. Every year I used to attend so many feasts (Choruibhati)in my school life with my friends.

In Bengal, groups of men and women,

Boys and girls are busy to travel with buses.

But some used to travel by private vehicles. They travel to Mythan, Masanjore to see the natural beauty of hilly barridge. Mostly are in the borders of Bengal and Jharkhand.

Some are visiting to Shantiniketan, the magnificent – Tagore’s paradise!

To see pousmela and Bouls of Bengal.

As Winter comes with a gorgeous dress and bitter cold.

So peoples are to dresses in warm clothing.

But poor people can’t afford it. So they are sufferings from a cold and cough. They have to face hurdles in this winter blow and ultimately die.

Read more:A SHORT TOUR & A TINY VILLAGE, 2. Nature And Mind

Winter special mela begins in Durgapur.

Bengal Melà in Winter/image:kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

So we visit the Sweet fest where lots of stalls temporarily start their Shops.

Where visitors gather to taste sitabhog

Or nalen gurer sandesh , mihidana and

various kind of sweets. It’s of different places

Of Bengal. Someone tasting Biriani with chicken curry. Last year we tasted it. But that was not good at all. So, I don’t wañt to have it.

As I am fond of sweets, so I first started to taste the famous Sitabhog of Bardhaman. Next, I tasted the langcha of Shaktigarh.

My daughter standing in front of a aachar shop

tasting almost all the aanchar. And eager to purchase two of these. These are very tasty.

Consequently, we enjoy the day long .

Hence, Winter means Christmas festival, mela and choruibhati.

And traveling with friends in historical places.

It’s Hajarduary of Murshidabad or Bandel Church.

Eventually, it stimulates monotonous life with great joy.

But the poor people can’t enjoy it.

Hence, they wait for summer. Because They couldn’t manage woolly garments for the bitter winter. However, we never miss Bengali Mela(fair) in Winter.

Read my poems in (http://www.kalpatarurudra.com)

MEMOIRS OF MY EARLY LIFE

MEMOIRS OF MY EARLY LIFE

India My India Love You

My memoirs of my early life was full of joy , like a common village boy , I was then to some extent emotional guy than other school – going boys . My school was at a distant place , but I never reached there late .It was tough in rainy season to reach in time, have a wide river in between our village and my school, the learning temple of mine , my school which was on the bank River Bhagirathi, Never I reached there in late.Village People there bathing and washing body returning to their home with quick pace . Boys are jumping to swim with their friends , someone doing Surya pronam and women are expressing their pain .My home was a big one having almost fifty doors , And every room has a name , the building was two storied , Even there is a name of every room like pasher ghar (side room), Sajjaghar( dressing room), and so on . Bhoger Ghar and so on.The main door was in the east direction and way out in the West. There was a jackfruit tree and also flower’s gardens – where my father used to clean the grasses under the tree.Baithak Khana was a beautiful place surrounding with trees , there every year in winter vegetables were being cultivated, it was our daily menus in the lunch and dinner .We have some cows which were nurtured by Mujahar Bhai, a royal servant in my home, he will never die . I used to go out with him , in the autumn or in the spring .Every year before Durga Puja , Our elders used to start a rehearsal the drama in the Baitak Khana, there assembled interested peoples for acting drama, in which Shyamdada used to play Harmonium, and some man play in the role of women .It was interesting to us in the rehearsals every year . Shyam Dada was very fond of opium. Playing cards was his favorite game , both Sundar uncle and he played the game.My father’s room was at end of the building, named Kuthuri Ghar. There was two big flower gardens adjacent to it , He used a arm chair where he laid down up to mid night , I felt some uneasy for that and had a fear of ghost or thief .My father stared at the laugh of the multi – coloured flowers, His only work to plant tree and to blossom flowers . My father was also a very emotional man , have a great sympathy to the poor and needy , but he spent with the financial crisis unto the last breathe .I spent my college life in our city home , My mother used to prepare our lunch and dinner alone ,none are there to help her. She never complain about it to my father.Never she cries. During our Puja vacation we returned our village home to enjoy the grand ceremony of Durga Puja which was very amazing to us, never for

India My India Love You/image:memoirs of my early life: Kalpatarurudra.org

My memoirs of my early life was full of joy , like a common village boy , I was then emotional guy than other school – going boys . My school was at a distant place , but I never reached there late.

It was tough in the rainy season to reach in time, have a wide river in between our village and my school, the learning temple of mine. My school was on the Riverbank of Bhagirathi. Never I reached there late.

Village People used to bathe and washing body returned their home with quick pace . Boys are jumping to swim with their friends , someone doing Surya pronam and women are expressing their pain .

My village home is a big one having almost fifty doors , And there is a name of every door , the building was two storied.

Even there is a name of every room like pasher ghar (side room), Sajjaghar( dressing room), and Bhoger Ghar and so on.

The main door was in the east direction. and way out in the West. There was a jackfruit tree and also flower’s gardens – where my father used to clean the grasses.

Read more: DEPRESSION A SILENT PANDEMIC

Baithak Khana was a beautiful place surrounding with trees , there every year in winter my father cultivated seasonal vegetables and flowers , it was our daily menus in the lunch and dinner .

We have some cows . Mujahar bhai nurtured them with profound love , he was royal servant in my home, he will never die . I used to go out with him , in the autumn or in the spring .

Every year before Durga Puja , Our elders used to start a rehearsal of the drama in the Baitak Khana . There assembled interested peoples for acting drama.

Shyamdada used to play Harmonium, and some man play in the role of women .

It was interesting to us in the rehearsals every year . Shyam Dada was very fond of opium. His favourite game was Playing cards, both Sundarkaka (uncle) and he played the game.

My father’s room was at end of the building, named Kuthuri Ghar. There was two big flower gardens adjacent to it.

He used to lie on an arm chair and stayed up to mid night , I felt some uneasy for that and had a fear of ghost or thief.

My father stared at the laugh of the multi – coloured flowers, His only work to plant tree and to blossom flowers.

My father was also a very emotional man, have great sympathy for the needy and poor man, but he spent with the financial crisis unto the last breathe.

I spent my college life in our city home, My mother prepares alone our lunch and dinnr. She never complains about it to my father. And She stays aloof rather.

It During our Puja vacation, we returned to our village home to enjoy the grand ceremony. It was very amazing to us, we never forget those days, I love to remember it again and again.

It is the memoirs of my early life. Gradually it is all now faded. And I have been spending my life with burden.

THE STORY OF AN INDIAN MONK :

Dr. Sushil Rudra

LETTERS AS A MIRROR OF SELF

The story of an Indian Monk / Swami Vivekananda: The Valorous Monk
Image:Letters Of Swami Vivekananda / The story of an Indian Monk/kalpatarurudra.org /jpg

Dr Sushil Rudra

Today I will discuss a story of an Indian Monk before my readers. This Indian monk is regarded as one of the greatest spiritual teacher ,distinguish philosopher and humanist. He is also a nationalist, educator and man – making socio reformer of the World.

SRI RAMAKRISHNA: The story of an Indian monk

Sri Ramakrishna, his spiritual guru once remarked, ” Naren Will teach.” Naren is one of the Rishi of the Saptarshi – told Sri Ramakrishna. Naren was his pen name. Sri Ramakrishna used to call him in this name. He was then unknown monk-like others. Here my readers will have been experienced a story of an Indian monk who wondered in the world in quest of God.

After his guru’s Mahasamadhi ( death ) he roamed from one place to another. He walked from village to cities and towns of India , sometimes on foot , and sometimes through Railway .

In fact , a man like Vivekananda in the history of mankind is rare in true sense of the term.

He sacrificed his life for the awakening and advancement of the human race of the East and West by his tremendous power and mammoth deeds.

Truly, his massages and the means he directed and started in India and the West, that is the only path to solve the global problems.

SWAMI VIVEKANANDA & INDIAN NATIONALISM AND OTHER ACTIVITIES:

¶¶ Being An Indian Monk, Swami Vivekananda played a significant role in the growing Indian nationalism of the 19tn and 20th centuries, reinterpreting and harmonising certain aspects of Hinduism.

Vivekananda’s Teachings: The story of an Indian monk

His teachings and philosophy applied this interpretation to various aspects of education, faith, character building as well as social issues about India, and also instrumental in introducing yoga and Vedanta to the West.

Truly, this unknown Indian Monk painted a golden picture of the glorious ancient India in which the peoples of the West was blind. His vision and mission were to make a human from a man, an unbiased society from corrupted people, and not like that of Plato’s ideal kingdom.

Swamiji said,” Man–making is my mission. ” And for this purpose, he intended to visit the Parliament Of World Religion.

HIS MESSAGE TO WEST:

¶¶ Though he is known worldwide for introducing the philosophy of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western World, for presenting Hinduism to the Christian society, and drawing its respect for the Indian culture, but as many don’t know, this was never his intention.

So, What Was His Intention?

WHY HE WENT THERE ?

Read similar articles ” Swami Vivekananda as a World Teacher ( http://www.kalpatarurudra.org)

” Primarily my coming has been to raise funds for an enterprise of my own.”. What it was? Swami Ji noticed during his stay in the West, that there was barely a difference between the higher classes of India and America, but there was an infinite distance between the poor of the two countries.

His vision, therefore, became the empowerment of the masses through education.

” If the poor can not come to education, education must reach them at the plough, in the factory, everywhere…….So they would have ideas and morality and hope for the better.

¶¶ The Strength of his Language: as portrayed in the letter!

Vivekananda writes in a personal voice with a style that is direct and decorated at the same time. His language is poetic, and in poetry even. When talking about personal things – an interesting correspondence and requiescat in pace are two of his examples of the many poems which were found among his letters.

THE VIBRANT WORDS OF SWAMI JI:A story of an Indian monk :


Sometimes His tone is analytical, sometimes his voice often gets bold and prophetic.

 Despair not! Remember the Lord says in Gita, ” To work you have the right, but not to the result. Guard up your lions my boy. I am called by the Lord for this. I have been dragged through a whole life full of crosses and tortures.

………. I have seen the nearest and dearest die, almost of starvation; I have been ridiculed, distrusted and have suffered for my sympathy for the very men who scoff and scorn. … Trust not to the so-called rich, they are more dead than alive. The hope lies in you. ..”

POETIC EXPRESSION :

¶¶ The poetic expression of some of his letters are fabulous. Here are some instances.

Up, up, the long night is passing, the day is approaching, the wave has risen, nothing will be able to resist its tidal fury. The spirit, my boys, the spirit, the love, my children, the love; the faith, the belief and fear not! The greatest sin is fear. ” ( Letter to Alasinga, Letters of Swami Vivekananda, page – 107)

NEED MONEY FOR WORKS:The Story Of an Indian Monk

¶¶ To achieve this however, one needed money and he did not trust a “Pauper” government to do this job. He therefore decided to reach at the Parliament of World Religions in that hope he could get a massage across that would bring in the required funds.

So, without this letter written to Maharaja , we could not be able to know the purpose of his visiting to America.

¶¶ The Strength of his Language:

Vivekananda writes in a personal voice. It’s with a style that is direct and decorated at the same time. His language is poetic, and in poetry even.

While he is talking about personal things – An interesting correspondence and requiescat in Pace are two of his examples of the many poems. They were also found among his letters.




In his letter to Mrs Mery and H. Hell, we see the same poetic diction. He writes:

” Thou music of my Beloved’s flutelead on, I am following. It is impossible to express my pain, my anguish at being separated from you, noble and sweet and generous and holy ones. Oh! How I wish I had succeeded in becoming a stoic! ” ( Letters of Swami Vivekananda – Page 119)

VIVEKANANDA’S LETTER AS HIS BIOGRAPHY.

¶¶ Mayawati Ashram first published the Letters of Swami Vivekananda on 1st January 1940. Swamiji wrote most of the letters from 19.11.1988 to 14.06.1902. All the letters were in the English language.

Swami Ji wrote these letters to his friend, Mr Pramadadas Mitra, Master Mahashay Mahendranath Gupta, Swami Akhandananda and Balaram Bose.

They were all senior in age and he did sanitation accordingly. He writes some letters in Bengali, Hindi, Sanskrit and French. He uses very simple and placid words, but complex analogies.







¶¶ Sometime His tone is analytical, sometime his voice often gets bold and prophetic.

” Despair not ! Remember the Lord says in Gita” To work you have the right, but not to the result. Guard up yours lions my boy . I am called by the Lord for this. I have been dragged through a whole life full of crosses and tortures. I have seen the nearest and dearest die , almost of starvation; I have been ridiculed, distrusted and have suffered for my sympathy for the very men who scoff and scorn . … Trust not to the so -called rich, they are more dead than alive. The hope lies in you. ..”

¶¶ The poetic expression of some of his letters are fabulous. Here are some instances.

Up, up, the long night is passing, the day is approaching, the wave has risen, nothing will be able to resist its tidal fury. The spirit, my boys, the spirit, the love, my children, the love; the faith, the belief and fear not! The greatest sin is fear. ” ( letter to Alasigha, Letters of Swami Vivekananda, page – 107)

image:The story of an Indian Monk/Kalpatarurudra,org/jpg

Vivekananda never forgot his Mother & Brothers. He was a monk , but not a inhuman.

Though his father was a renowned Barrister in Calcutta and earned a lot, he was a very wide–hearted man. He had to look after his poor relatives and ultimately, he had no bank balance at the time of his death.

Therefore, Swami Ji, as an elder son of the family had to face big financial problems. Besides, they had some family dispute which turned into a legal suit in the High Court of Calcutta. His brothers are studying then. His mind was then full of apathy.

Vivekananda, the then-unknown Indian Monk writes a letter to Promadadas Mitra in 1889.

” In Calcutta live my mother and two brothersI am the eldest; the second is preparing for the first Arts Examination and the third is young. they were quite well off before, but since my father’s death, it is going very hard with them – they even have to go fasting at times!

…… To crown all, some relatives, taking advantage of their helplessness, drove them away from the ancestral residence. Though a part of it is recovered through seeing at the High Court, destitution is now upon them – a matter of course in litigation”. Therefore, this is the story of an Indian monk.

HE COULDN’T TOUCH MONEY: The Story Of An Indian Monk

Read more: How To Overcome The Breakup Situation?

This is the story of an Indian Monk who sacrifices himself on his Master’s feet, Sri Ramakrishna. Like Ramkrishna, Vivekananda doesn’t like to touch money.

Though he went to America to collect money for his own. Might be contradictory, but that is for his great purpose which he started from Belur Math – to serve the poor and weak and downtrodden.

Read ” Every man is potentially divine”/http://www.kalpatarurudra.or Goswami Vivekananda as depicted in his letter.

MADHUSUDAN DUTTA : THE FIRST MODERN POET

Dr Sushil Rudra

Hee Bango Bhandare Tabo Bibidha Ratan

Image:Mychael  Madhusudan Dutta the first modern poet( Kobi)/kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

Madhusudan Dutta , the first modern poet and dramatist (1824 – 1873) lived a very short life and writes both in English and Bengali language. He is an Indian poet of nineteenth centuries. Not much, but some valuable and memorable pieces of literary gems he composed.

He is called the first modern poet and dramatist in Bengal as well as in India. Today , 25th January is his birthday , so we convey a lot of respect to him .

Michael Madhusudan Dutta the first modern poet /(wishes “Stop a while, traveler !/ Should Mother Bengal Claim /thee for her son.” – ) image:kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

BIO OF MYCHAEL MADHUSUDAN DUTTA: THE FIRST MODERN POET :

Madhusudan , the modern Bengali Poet was a brilliant student of Kolkata’s famous Hindu College ( Now Presidency University) . Rajnarayan Bose, Bhudev Mukhopadhay was his classmate. He studied Bengali ,Sanskrit, Parsia, Greek amongst other subjects.

A JOURNEY: MODERN WRITING

He began writing while he studied there . He drew everyone’s attention at college for his personality, fluent English speaking like the English man – even more proficiently , extraordinary speaker / orator, and as a well – dressed modern young Bengali student.

In fact , Michael’s exceptionally colourful personality and his unconventional, dramatic and in the many ways tragic life have added to the magnetism and glamour of his name.

¶¶ MYCHAEL MASHUSUDAN DUTTA THE FIRST MODERN POET / WORKS & COMPOSITION:

Madhusudan started his literary journey in English language .Actually this was the tradition. Because , it was British period when all the communication had to perform in English and it was king’s language.

Read also:1. Indian Literature And Women Writing 2. The Banned Books In India 3. The Pioneer Of The Bengali Novel ?

MODERN NOVEL: BANKIM CHANDRA

Bankimchandra Chattapaddhay also began his literary debut in English which is a novel, “Rajmohan’s Wife”. Madhusudan wrote ” The Captive Ladie “(1849).

Bankimchandra

¶¶ ” The Captive Ladie ” is the most considerable verse in English written by a Bengali’s pen . This verse( two cantos and with an introduction), appended with Visions of the past had established him as one of the foremost litterateurs of the Bengal Renaissance.

Like many of his other poems ,The Captive Ladie, inspired by the 12th century Rajasthani poet Chand Bardai’s Prithvirajraso, is set in pre- Mutual Delhi , and draws references from both the Indian epics ,ThRamayana (4th century B.C ) and The Mahabharata (4th century A.D) more prominently, from the former.

The Captive Ladie alongwith Visions of the Past dealing with Christian theme , were first published in the Madras Circulator,probably in April – May 1849.

The tale of the Captive Ladie ,previously mentioned , from the store of Indian history and ambitiously addresses quite a few controversial issues like nationalism and patriotism, individual liberty, the practice of Sati, the rehabilitation of much maligned Hindu Gods and the Hindu character.

In this poem , captivity is a happy trope for examining his own cultural plight. This is metaphorically representative of the poet’s captivity in the hands of his English Muse .

MEGHNADBADH KABYA:

¶¶ The first modern poet of Bengali language and literature ,Madhusudan Dutt became famous for his literary epic ‘Meghnathbadh Kabya’. He used blank verse in lieu of analogous , which was entirely new in Bengali poetry than previous Bharatchandra and Ishwar Gupta.

Language, rhetoric , prosody and imageries – are all new and highly significant. 1860 – 1861 may be considered as one of the more productive periods of Dutt’s life because during these two years , the plays padmavati and Krishnakumari , the poems Tilottamasambhava Brajangana .And the epical Meghnadhvadh were published.

¶¶ The poetic composition,Birangana (1862) was succeeded by Chatturdashpadi Kavitabali (sonnet) – a collection of 102 Bengali fourteen- liners- in 1866 and the prose work Hector Badh.

¶¶ His another contribution in Bengali literature is his drama. Initially he translated a drama Ratnavali of Ramnarayan ,while he came in contact with the Belgachhia theatre groups , and this association induced in him an unforeseen eagerness to contribute in Bengali.

He composed and translated Sermista , Is this called Civilisation? Maya kanan is another drama , published posthumously in 1874.

¶¶ He wrote some love poems in his young age when he was a college student. Wrote a number of letters to his friend ,Gourdas Basal and Raj Narayan Basu and also his mentor Ishwar Chandra Bandhopadhyay . He wrote some essays which published in the famous contemporary news papers .

Image:kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

¶¶ Michael Madhusudan Dutta, the great modern poet was a genius and his contribution in English and Bengali literature are enormous and fabulous, but his personal life was not happy for his reckless expenditure and unrestrained lifestyle.

Mychael Mashusudan Dutta , the first modern poet’s Marriage life was not also smooth . He died in the early , at the age of 49 . We convey our respect to his eternal soul .

His Home / image: kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

Poet and poems

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