Seven Sisters – Insurgency and Depression

Insurgency in Seven Sisters States is horrible and troublesome. When we read novels or short stories of the writers of Seven Sisters, we become aware of the situation of insurgency. We further came to know its havoc impact on the minds of women and children. So we will find out the condition of Seven Sisters – Insurgency and depression in this post.

Like Punjab and Kashmir, most of the Northeast states are going through a long-term insurgency there. Naturally, the women and the school students are to face depression and mental illness. That’s why, our discussion is about ” Seven Sisters – Insurgency and Depression”.

SEVEN SISTERS STATE AND DEPRESSION:


So, seven sisters is not a stranger to mental health problems. The north- east states are detached of main land of India and are the most remote places. Moreover, there are no sufficient mode of transportation and communication to travel from one place to another.

As a result, these states are mostly underdeveloped and backward places in India. Although sparsely populated, the healthcare facilities are not evenly distributed and lack many facilities as well as trained professionals.

Why is there massive mental health problems?

We will try to explore the probable causes of mental health problems in States. Probably the government didn’t take bold steps that need to ensure proper treatment to the affected people.

So, this post discusses on Seven sisters’s insurgency and depression. Hence, It will explore government forces atrocities and political violence in these areas.

There is lack of facilities, infrastructure and trained professionals to cope with the situation.

Besides, there prevails poverty, drug abuse and narcotic substances, superstitious beliefs, lack of awareness and social stigma . It leads to psychological disturbances among the civilians living in North East.

THE DEMOGRAPHY OF NORTH EAST:

  • Northeast India is the region situated in the eastern-most part of India. It comprises of the eight states.
  • It’s Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim.
  • It is linked with Indian heartland through the 21 km. wide Shiliguri Corridor. It looks like the chicken neck. The Redcliffe line named it so .
  • The Northeast borders on four countries namely China and Bhutan on its North; Myanmar on its East; and Bangladesh on its South and West.
  • It has an area of 2.6 lakh sq. km. , while its population is 39 million-plus. It has 475 ethnic groups. They speak 400 languages/ dialects.

History: NORTHEAST – INSURGENCY AND DEPRESSION :

  • According to the Report of the 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission,  the Northeast represents a state of stable anarchy.
  • There the rule of law and other institutions of governance are subverted directly or through collusive arrangements.
  • Regional issues are as follows: the inter-tribal conflicts, the youth unemployment and the inability to compete with non-tribal businesses, illegal migration from neighbouring States etc.
  • The States has natural resources.
  • The land has led to various conflicts and demands of secession/ autonomy at the national level.
  • The broad racial differences between India and its Northeast and the tenuous geographical link (the chicken neck Siliguri Corridor) contributed to a sense of allegations, a feeling of otherness’. Subsequently, it gave rise to a political culture of violent separatism.
  • Ethnic tensions: Northeast India is home to more than 50 ethnic rebel groups. A few of them are demanding complete secession from India.
  • Besides others are fighting for ethnic identities and homelands. Some are running the insurgency as an industry to spin easy money without any political ideology.
  • Militants in their formative years voiced genuine grievances of the people such as poor governance, alienation, lack of development and an apathetic attitude from the central government.
  • However, with time and opportunist motives, these turned into insurgencies across the region.

The factors that led to the emergence of the different insurgent groups in the region.

Nagaland

  • Being a part of the larger state of Assam, it was the first to experience militancy in pursuit of a grant of autonomy. Under the leadership of the Naga National Council (N.N.C.), headed by A.Z. Phizo, Nagas declared independence around 1951.

Mizoram

  • It was a part of the state of Assam before it was granted statehood in 1987. It experienced militancy after the Union government failed to respond positively to its demand for assistance during the massive “Mautam famine”
  • The Mizo National Front (M.N.F.), led by the legendary leader Laldenga, demanded independence for Mizoram in 1966.

Tripura

  • The migration of Hindus from the British-ruled East Bengal is responsible for reducing the indigenous tribal people in the state. Ultimately, it becomes a minority status. This development sparked a violent backlash among the indigenous people.
  • So the militant groups sprang up in the state demanding the restoration of the tribal rights from the Bengali population.

Assam

  • A movement started there in demanding the deportation of the illegal migrants. It also witnessed the birth of the militant outfit the United Liberation Front of Assam (U.L.F.A.) in 1979.
  • The other groups are Bodo Liberation Tigers, National Democratic Front of Bodoland (N.D.F.B.), the United People’s Democratic Solidarity (U.P.D.S.).

Manipur

  • Militancy originated in protest against the forcible merger of the former Manipur Kingdom with India.
  • United National Liberation Front was formed in 1964. It has the goal of ending the discrimination against Manipur. It accorded statehood only in 1972 nearly 23 years after its merger.

Meghalaya

  • The Meghalaya state was carved out of the Assam state aiming to address the unique needs of the major tribes in the region: the Garos, the Jaintias and the Khasis.
  • The rise of aspirations of tribal autonomy led to the emergence of several insurgent groups in the state, like Garo National Liberation Army (GNLA ) and Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council (HNLC).

Arunachal Pradesh

  • The state remains under peace more or less in history but the proximity of state with Myanmar and Nagaland border is gradually being afflicting insurgency in recent time.
  • The only case of indigenous insurgency movement in Arunachal Pradesh was the rise of the Arunachal Dragon Force (ADF).

Military operations and AFSPA

  • Special powers under AFSPA (Armed Forces Special Powers Act) were bestowed on armed forces to deal with emergency conditions. It is there in the whole of Assam, Nagaland, most of Manipur, and some areas of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Military operations in Mizoram, where the army reportedly launched air strikes to neutralize the M.N.F. cadres.Therefore, It resulted in several fatalities and displacement among the civilian population.
  • In Assam, at the beginning of the 1990s, government launched military operations – Rhino and Bajrang, against U.L.F.A. militants.
  • Assam rifle deals with insurgents in Assam.
  • The security scenario in the North East is constantly improving. While there is almost no insurgency left in Tripura and Mizoram. So improvement in the security situation in other States of the region is stable.This is a good sign for North East to elevate insurgency and depression.

Read more: RABIBDRANATH TAGORE IN DEPRESSION,/“Depression In Mahabharata”, /

Read more: Depression and Insurgency In Kashmir,

  • The lifting of the AFSPA from all areas of Meghalaya on 31st March 2018 is an illustration of the vast improving security scenario in the NER.

Peace talks: North East – Insurgency and Depression

  • Dialogue with the M.N.F. remains the only example of the culmination of a successful peace process. So it ended militancy in Mizoram in 1986.
  • Other peace deals such as the Shillong Accord in 1975 with the N.N.C. in Nagaland, the 1988 agreement with the Tripura National Volunteers in Tripura and The Bodoland Autonomous Council agreement of 1993 with the Bodo militants in Assam are also in effect, but with limited success.
  • Union government has ongoing ceasefire agreements with six militant groups with different actors like NSCN (IM), UPDS, Achik National Volunteer Council.

Role of the Neighbours to Elevate Insurgency of North East and Depression:

  • The Neighbouring countries like China and Myanmar are promoting insurgency in the region.
  • Perhaps Pakistan, through its intelligence agency the I.S.I. assisted the militant groups in terms of training and finance.
  • China is providing some assistance to groups such as the N.S.C.N. in the 1980s.
  • Militant camps in Nagaland, as well as Manipur, exist in the bordering areas of Myanmar.
  • Moreover, Bhutan remains the only country that successfully dislodged several militant camps of the northeastern groups through a military operation. It launched in December 2003.

Consequences of Violence ( North East -Insurgency and Depression :

  • According to the Ministry of Home Affairs, both civilians and security forces had to face severe fatalities.
  • In the oil-rich Assam, militants have periodically targeted oil and gas pipelines for sabotage .
  • Besides, national projects such as the extension of the rail lines Is with a tardy pace because of militants attack. They distracted the construction sites by bombing and abducted workers.
  • Tourism could have flourished in the scenic northeast, but has suffered a lot due to instability in the region.
  • Militancy affected education sector too. Several schools in Tripura’s interior areas therefore, have been shut as teachers avoid the areas due to fear of militant strikes.
  • It furthermore, raises the price of essential commodities.

    • .

Current Situation: North East – Insurgency and depression:

Suggestions

  • The state response has effectively curbed violence in the northeast.
  • The political nexus have helped them carry out their illicit works. In return, run extortion rackets and all types of other illegal trades.
  • Naturally, this results in dismal law and order situations in these areas. There is the absence of a rule of law. As a result, the militant groups are still operating.
  • Moreover, the chances of a political settlement are bleak because of the kind of diversity it holds.
  • Lack of development continues to alienate the people of the region further from the mainstream.
  • Moreover, the region has also received little attention from either the national or the international media.
  • So it needs to enhance communication and connectivity and infrastructure improvement for better integration of the region with the mainland.
  • Secondly, stringent law and fast criminal justice system for quick disposal of insurgents attack cases.
  • Thirdly, there needs greater coordination between central forces and state forces for better tactical response.
  • Fourth, it needs greater cultural interaction with the rest of the country.
  • And finally, decentralization, Improving administrative efficiency, pro-people governance and coping up with regional aspirations are the real need there.

However, if the central and state governments take these measures, I think peace would have been come in the Seven Sisters of Northeast. Therefore, people don’t face any crisis. Ultimately, depression must not wrap them.

                                

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Photo by Studio Art Smile on Pexels.com/seven sisters – insurgency and depression

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Seven Sisters, Insurgency and Depression/ image: www.kalpatarurudra.org/jpg

 

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