by Sushil Rudra
Indian literature and the women writings are vast and diverse in nature . Indian soil produced so many great writers like Valmiki ,Kalidas ,Rabindranath and so on.
Rabindranath is the latest . We can compare him with Shakespeare, Keats or Wordsworth. I think he is more genius than any world class writers.
Togore produced a lot in every branch of literature. But the Indian literature of women writings are very few during this period.
INDIAN LITERATURE AND WOMEN WRITINGS :
Comparatively We can not refer any women writer like Rabindranath in India. Though Indian writings of women are highly enriched like male writers after Rabindranath.
Actually modern India has produced number of eminent writers like Ashapurna Devi,Mahasweta Devi,Kamala Das ,Mahadevi Verma ,Krishna Seboti ,Ismat Chugtai etc.
Hence, I like to discuss the literary works of women of different parts of Indian provinces in order to get the different socioeconomic problems which they had to face in day to day life struggle.
INDIAN DIVERSITY :
India is vast country and its culture, lifestyle ,food habit, language are various. The problems of Kashmir’s women and Northeast are different.
Yes , both the provinces are disturbed due to terrorist activities and it has been going on since independence of India and Pakistan. Kashmir is now a province of India.
DIVERSITY IN LANGUAGES :
But some months ago it was not . The local people of Nagaland ,Mizoram don’t think that they are Indian.
Besides other than Hindi ,Bengali ,Gujarati, Punjabi, Marathi ,Oriya etc others languages are from Dravidian and Votchiniya ,even the language of Manipur ,Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh are local tribals languages.
In Kashmir, some writers followed Urdu and English other than Kashmiri language. So it’s a mammoth tasks to depict all the works of Indian Women Writings.
WHAT YOU COME TO KNOW :
I would try to discuss about selected women writers of all the provinces of Indian States who has written in prominent languages like Hindi ,Bengali, Punjabi, Malayalam, Tamil,Telugu, Kannada etc.
Indian literature and Women writings are now superb and fantabulous . Before that we are going to discuss about the position of women in Indian society from Vedic period to modern times.
DIGNITY OF WOMEN :
A.S.Altekar wrote in his book ’The Position Of Women in Hindu Civilization’ : The advancement and amelioration of a country depends on the betterment of its women’s dignity and the position which she belongs.
Indian society is totally different from Western country’s societies. Our society is to some extent conservative. Though at present women are getting freedom than before as the education spreads in all section of the society.
WOMEN POSITION IN ANCIENT INDIA :
We came to know from our ancient scriptures that women’s position in vedic period was in high esteem and they’d proper education. Women like Moitryee , Khana had the profound knowledge in scriptures, economics and sociology etc.
Eventually, they got admiration in the vedic society.It was continued up to the first half of Buddhist era. Gradually subsides it in the next era.
DECLINING WOMEN POSITION:
Women position extremely diminished when Muslims ruled our country. In this period women had to confine into the four walls . They were captivated in purdah and not given education.
But it has changed during colonial neperiods.Vidyasagar and Drinkwater at the first time organized a girls school in north Calcutta.
INDIAN LITERATURE & ITS TIMES:
We can divide Indian literature into three specific era namely Old Literature,Medieval Literature and Modern Literature. Since the time of ancient India art and literature of this soil is highly unique and rich .
THE BOOKS OF ANCIENT INDIA :
The sages of ancient India composed various kind of books which are of eminence knowledge like Vedas, Upanishads, Purana ,The Arthasashtra of Kautillya , Yoga Sashtra of Patanjali , The Baimanik sashtra of Vishamitra etc.
Mathematician Aryabhatya , Physician Charak and Monu wrote their research papers in Sanskrit which are highly regarded till now .
WOMEN WRITERS OF ANCIENT INDIA :
Even women like Maitreyi, Khana , Lopamudra were the great wise and eminent writers in ancient India. We can be proud for these ancient distinguished poets and poetess. Still they inspire us .
They wrote beautiful lyrics which teach us how to live a divine life without any tension of worldly hectic activities. These lyrics of ancient sages are universal .
Srimatvagbata Gita ,Ramayana and Mahabharata all these are great treasure of Indian literature . These inspire us to create our modern literature and guide us to lead a happy life.
MEDIAEVAL INDIA & THE WRITERS :
Medieval India couldn’t produce a lot like the erstwhile because of political disturbances. India was invaded by the foreigners like Turkish, Muggs, Mughals .
The disturbed India couldn’t produce great authors though the writer like Jaydev ,Vidyapati ,Chandidas ,Bharatchandra were the genius in literature.
We can pick the name of great Kalidas ,Vasa , Vabobhuti . They are eminent writers of this era.
VAISHNAVA PADABALI :
Vaishnava Padabali is undoubtedly the best as an literature as well as divine songs.
Modern poet Rabindranath Tagore was inspired with the lyrics of Vidyapati and composed his lyrical book’Vanusingher Padavali.
MODERN LITERATURE & ITS TIMES
Inspite of these compositions , we don’t feel any attraction in it due its non -modern themes . Indian modern literature is not only supurb in quality ,it’s unique, commendable and rich in various subjects.
And it has been possible for new education systems, social reformation and other spiritual movement.
THE RENAISSANCE :
The Renaissance in Bengal changed the thought and life of Indians . Raja Ram Mohan Roy,Vidyasagar , Dwaraknath Tagore ,Sree Ramkrishna , Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was born in nineteenth century and they did a lot for the country.
Modern literature is the result of Renaissance. We came contact with English literature and culture as they ruled our country for a longtime.
Some Indian lover Englishmen helped to spread education along with Vidyasagar. Since that times Indian women came out from the captivation and started their journey to explore themselves .
WHY LESS PARTICIPATION ?
In this modern era Indian literature was enriched with the splendid writings of male writers Bankim, Madhusudan Dutt ,Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, Saratchandra and other male writers .
But women writings are very few in nineteenth century, but started gradually. As a result , in Indian literature women writings have come slowly but steadily .
INDIAN DIVERSITY :
India is a vast land with vast population and their language and culture are different. So Indian literature and women writings are the pictures of different demography.
Even their lifestyles are different. They live in various demographic area which is different from one another. Some live in plains ,some in Hilly area ,some live in desert and others on bank of rivers or adjacent to seashore.
So they have to face different kind of natural atmospheric influences . Some places are very worm ,some are very cool. That’s why Indian literature and women writings are vast and diverse in nature.
STRUGGLE OF THE PEOPLE :
People of India used to struggle according to their environment and atmosphere. The hill’s folks are very industrious than wormy plains .
Besides, India is a land of multi linguistic peoples. Some people speak in Indo- Arian languages, some Dravidian and others in Votchina or Votbarmio languages.
So Indian literature is a store house of great treasure of multi linguistic literatures .
Indian Women Writing :
Read also: 1. Rabindranath as a Singer, Musician & Lyricist 2. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA: THE POET & HIS POEMS