Government Yojna – E Shram Card

Government Yojna – E Shram Card August Kist 2022 : जिन श्रमिक को अभी तक पैसा नहीं मिला है इन श्रमिक को मिलेगा अगस्त में पैसा देखें. Government Yojna – E shram card .

August 9, 2022

E Shram Card August Kist 2022 जिन श्रमिक को अभी तक पैसा नहीं मिला है इन श्रमिक को मिलेगा अगस्त में पैसा देखें:

नई दिल्ली:Goverment Yojna –  E Shram Card धारकों को लेकर एक अहम जानकारी सामने आ रही है. अब दूसरी और तीसरी किस्त का पैसा उनके खाते में भेज दिया गया है. फिर भी ई-श्रम के तहत प्राप्त राशि कुछ लोगों के खाते में नहीं आई है। विभाग से मिली जानकारी के मुताबिक ऐसे लोगों की पहचान करना जरूरी माना जा रहा है जो अपात्र हैं. क्योंकि कार्डधारकों में लाखों ऐसे लोग हैं जो अपात्र हैं और उनके खाते में पैसा नहीं पहुंच रहा है.

बता दें कि पहले सरकार ने ई-श्रम कार्ड धारकों को 1000 रुपये की किस्त का लाभ दिया था, अब सरकार जल्द ही 500 रुपये की अगली किस्त जारी करने जा रही है। इस महीने सरकार लोगों के बैंक खातों में आर्थिक सहायता राशि ट्रांसफर कर सकती है।

यदि आपने भी कभी ऑनलाइन प्रक्रिया के माध्यम से ई श्रम पर रजिस्ट्रेशन कर लिया है तो

आपको यह मालूम होगा कि आपका ई श्रम कार्ड बना है कि नहीं बना तो आप इसे जानने के लिए आपको E Shram Card Status चेक करना होगा आपको पता होगा की कोरोनावायरस के कारण कमजोर वर्ग के परिवार आर्थिक रूप से बुरी तरह प्रभावित हुएसभी श्रमिक के खाते में ₹3000 की धनराशि जल्दी ट्रांसफर कर दी जाएगी यूपी के मुख्यमंत्री योगी आदित्यनाथ ने ई श्रम कार्ड का जल्दी पैसा सीधे बैंक खाते में भेज दिया जाएगा.

जिस व्यक्ति को ई श्रम कार्ड का पैसा नहीं मिलता है तो उनके लिए केवाईसी और पता अपडेट कराना अनिवार्य हो गया है पता नहीं अगर पता अपडेट नहीं कराया तो आपका श्रमिक कार्ड का सारा पैसा रुक जाएगा और आपको नहीं मिलेगा श्रम कार्ड का पैसा 10 मई तक सभी खातों में भेज दिया जाएगाअगर ई श्रम कार्ड में एक भी बार धनराशि नहीं मिली हे सबसे पहले निचे दिये गये लिंक क्लिक करे और देखे स्टेटस अपना यहाँ से किस वजह से नहीं मिला रूपयेआपको पता चलेगा कि आपका ई-श्रम कार्ड बना है कि नहीं बना। अगर आपका ई-श्रम कार्ड बना होगा तभी आप उसको डाउनलोड कर सकेंगे तथा उसमें सुधार कर सकेंगे और साथ ही साथ आप उसका प्रिंट आउट निकाल कर उसका उपयोग भी कर सकेंगे।

Important Links
E-Shram Card Status CheckClick Here
E-Shram Card Check Payment listClick Here
Join Telegram ChannelClick Here
श्रमिक कार्ड लिस्टClick Here
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ई श्रम कार्ड से किया लाभ हे-

अगर आपके पास ई-श्रम कार्ड होगा तो आपको उससे भारत सरकार के द्वारा ₹200000 तक का बीमा प्राप्त होगा जिसमें दूसरा लाभ यह होगा कि ₹500 प्रति महीना भारत सरकार के द्वारा दिया जाएगा इसीलिए अगर आपका अभी तक ई-श्रम कार्ड नहीं बना है तो आप ऑनलाइन प्रक्रिया के माध्यम से इस बनवा सकते हैं।

और अधिक जानकारी प्राप्त करने के लिए आप भारत सरकार की ऑफिशियल वेबसाइट पर जाकर विजिट कर सकते हैं।यदि आपने भी कभी ऑनलाइन प्रक्रिया के माध्यम से ई श्रम पर रजिस्ट्रेशन कर लिया है तो आपको यह मालूम होगा कि आपका ई श्रम कार्ड बना है कि नहीं बना तो आप इसे जानने के लिए आपको E Shram Card Status चेक करना होगा आपको पता होगा की कोरोनावायरस के कारण कमजोर वर्ग के परिवार आर्थिक रूप से बुरी तरह प्रभावित हुए.

Government Yojna – E Shram Card Payment Check 2022

योजना का नामयूपी ई श्रमिक भरण पोषण 2021-22
द्वारा शुरू किया गयामुख्यमंत्री योगी आदित्यनाथ
लाभार्थियोंअसंगठित श्रमिक, स्ट्रीट वेंडर, छोटे दुकानदार, सब्जी विक्रेता, फल विक्रेता, निर्माण श्रमिक, कृषि श्रमिक और अन्य सभी प्रकार के श्रमिक आदि
कुल लाभार्थी2.5 करोड़
यूपी ई श्रमिक भरण पोषण भट्टा 2022 राशि1000/- रु.2000
योजना का उद्देश्यमजदूरों और असंगठित श्रमिकों को राशन राशि उपलब्ध कराई जा रहा है
प्रभावी राज्यUttar Pradesh
आधिकारिक वेबसाइटeshram.gov.in
ई-श्रम कार्ड आवेदनE Shram Card
ई-श्रम कार्ड भुगतान-स्थितिक्लिक करें
image: kalpataru/ Government Yojna : E Shram Card

Government Yojna – E Shram Card Registration Benefits

  • यदि आप आज ही ई श्रम पोर्टल पर E Shram Card हेतु आवेदन करते हैं तो आप एक बीमा को कवर करना स्टार्ट कर देते हैं |
  • ई श्रम पोर्टल पर E Shram Card हेतु स्वयं ही रजिस्ट्रेशन करवाने के पश्चात आपको ₹200000 तक का दुर्घटना बीमा प्राप्त होता है |
  • E Shram Card पर 12 अंकों वाला एक नंबर दर्ज होता है जो कि संपूर्ण भारत में मान्य होता है |
  • E-Shram Card हेतु स्वयं ही आवेदन करने के कुछ महीनों के बाद आपको इस योजना के तहत कुछ सहायता राशि प्राप्त होगी |
  • श्रम पोर्टल पर E Shram Card हेतु स्वयं ही आवेदन करने के पश्चात भविष्य में आपको कई सारी सरकारी योजनाओं का सीधा लाभ प्राप्त होगा ई श्रम कार्ड से
  • यदि आप अपनी 18 वर्ष की आयु से इस योजना के तहत कुछ राशि जमा करते हैं तो भविष्य में आपको पेंशन राशि भी प्राप्त होगी आपको यह जानकर खुशी होगी कि भविष्य में आपको बेहतर शिक्षा, बेहतर इलाज, बेहतर रोजगार, सुखद जीवन आदि जैसे लाभ प्राप्त होंगे ई श्रम कार्ड से ई श्रम कार्ड हेतु स्वयं ही रजिस्ट्रेशन करवाने के पश्चात आपको कई लाभ प्राप्त होते हैं तथा अन्य लाभ की जानकारी हेतु आप आधिकारिक वेबसाइट पर जाना होगा

ई श्रम पोर्टल पर Government Yojna – E Shram Card हेतु कौन कौन आवेदन करे

पोर्टल हेतु श्रम कार्ड मजदूर जैसे निर्माण कार्य करने वाले , दिहाड़ी मजदूर, कुआं खोदने वाले, लोहार, आदि आवेदन कर सकते हैं |

रजिस्ट्रेशन हेतु ई श्रम कार्ड आधिकारिक वेबसाइटhttps://eshram.gov.in/ है

ई शर्म कार्ड बनाने के लिए क्या है पात्रता –

  • भारत का स्थायी निवासी होना चाहिए
  • आयु सीमा 15 वर्ष से 60 वर्ष के बीच होनी चाहिए
  • असंगठित क्षेत्र में काम
  • पहले से किसी सरकारी योजना का लाभार्थी नहीं है

E-Shram कार्ड बनाने के लिए किन दस्तावेजों की जरूरत होगी –

  • आधार कार्ड
  • मूल निवास प्रमाण पत्र
  • बैंक विवरण जानकारी
  • पासपोर्ट के आकार की तस्वीर
  • मोबाइल नंबर आधार से लिंक होना चाहिए

Government Yojna – E Shram Card ई शर्म कार्ड की दूसरी किस्त कब आएगी- Nachuk- Tahate- Shyama : A poem by -Vivekanand

जब श्रमिकों के खाते में ई-शर्म कार्ड की दूसरी किस्त आएगी, तो श्रमिकों को इसके लिए इंतजार करना होगा, जैसा कि आप जानते हैं कि उत्तर प्रदेश सरकार ने इस योजना का अधिकतम लाभ मजदूरों को दिया है, ऐसे में स्थिति, आने वाले महीने में उत्तर प्रदेश में आगामी विधानसभा चुनाव। और वहां आचार संहिता लागू हो गई है, इसलिए मजदूरों के खाते में पैसा तभी ट्रांसफर होगा जब वहां की नई सरकार 10 सोसायटियों के बाद बंद हो जाएगी और उसके बाद ही सरकार उनके खाते में पैसा ट्रांसफर कर सकेगी. आपको इंतज़ार करना होगा

Important Links
E-Shram Card Status CheckClick Here
E-Shram Card Check Payment listClick Here
Join Telegram ChannelClick Here
श्रमिक कार्ड लिस्टClick Here
Government Yojna- E Shram Card / image: kalpataru

UP Government Yojna – ई-श्रम कार्ड भट्टा 2022

UP Government Yojna ई-श्रम कार्ड भत्ता 2022 कैसे जांचें: दोस्तों जैसा कि आप जानते हैं कि सरकार द्वारा करोड़ों लोगों का ट्रांसफर किया जा रहा है, अगर आपने भी लेबर कार्ड बनाया है, तो आपको भी पैसा मिला है। ऐसे में अगर आप उत्तर प्रदेश में रहते हैं और आप अपना ई-श्रम कार्ड भट्टा चेक करना चाहते हैं, लेकिन इसकी प्रक्रिया क्या है, अगर आप इसके बारे में बिल्कुल नहीं जानते हैं, तो कोई बात नहीं, मैं आपसे अनुरोध करूंगा कि इस पोस्ट को अंत तक रखें। पढ़ना-

ई श्रम 1000 सूची श्रम कार्ड ओटीपी के बिना श्रम कार्ड बनाओ आप किसी भी नजदीकी सीएससी में जा सकते हैं और बिना ओटीपी के अपना श्रम कार्ड प्राप्त कर सकते हैं क्योंकि यदि आप सीधे घर पर बैठना चाहते हैं तो वे आपके अंगूठे के निशान को सामने ले कर अपना ई श्रम कार्ड बना सकते हैं।

लेबर कार्ड बनाओ, तो आपको ओटीपी चाहिए, इसी तरह की जानकारी के लिए हमारी वेबसाइट पर विजिट करते रहें ई श्रम 1000 सेकेंड पैसा लिस्ट आना शुरू करें अपना नाम देखें ई श्रम कार्ड ईशम कार्ड घर बैठे बनाएं ई श्रम कार्ड घर बाटे मोबाइल से बनाए इस प्रकार की योजना है भारत सरकार द्वारा घोषित किया गया ताकि सरकार मजदूरों को आर्थिक सहायता के रूप में कई प्रकार की सरकारी योजनाओं का लाभ उठा सके, अब आपके मन में यह सवाल आएगा कि ई श्रम कार्ड बनाने के लिए कौन से दस्तावेज देने होंगे

क्या है government gonna – ई श्रम कार्ड 2022

यह श्रमिक कार्ड भारत के प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी द्वारा जारी किया गया एक कल्याणकारी कार्ड है, जिसके माध्यम से सरकार इस कार्ड के माध्यम से असंगठित क्षेत्र के श्रमिकों को कई प्रकार की सरकारी योजनाओं का लाभ प्रदान करेगी ताकि उनके जीवन स्तर को बेहतर बनाया जा सके। उठाया और उन्हें आत्मनिर्भर और सशक्त बनाया जा सकता है, अगर आप भी एक मजदूर हैं, तो आपको आज ही यह कार्ड बनाना चाहिए।

ई श्रम कार्ड बनवाने के लिए क्या होनी चाहिए योग्यता-

आवेदक भारत का निवासी होना चाहिए
आयु 16 से 59 वर्ष
आयकर का भुगतान नहीं करता
आवेदक ईपीएफ और ईएसआईसी का सदस्य नहीं होना चाहिए
मैं असंगठित क्षेत्र में काम करता हूं
ई श्रम कार्ड बनाने के क्या फायदे हैं

Government Yojna – E Shram Card (ई श्रम कार्ड ) घर बाते मोबाइल से बनाये है-

सरकारी योजना का लाभ पात्रता के अनुसार दिया जाता है

  • 2 लाख रुपये की आकस्मिक मौत
  • आंशिक विकलांगता के लिए 1 लाख रुपये से अधिक
  • आश्रम पोर्टल पंजीकरण के बाद दुर्घटना बीमा कवरेज होगा।
  • भविष्य में मजदूरों के बच्चों को भी सरकार की ओर से स्कॉलरशिप दी जाएगी ताकि उनकी पढ़ाई अच्छे से हो सके।
  • जिन मजदूरों ने लेबर कार्ड के तहत रजिस्ट्रेशन कराया है, अगर उनके पास अपना घर नहीं है तो सरकार उन्हें
  • प्रधानमंत्री आवास योजना के तहत घर भी देगी.
  • आने वाले समय में सरकार ऐसे मजदूरों को अपना रोजगार शुरू करने के लिए सस्ते ब्याज दरों पर कर्ज भी देगी ताकि वे अपने पैरों पर खड़े हो सकें।

Government Yojna – ई श्रम कार्ड बनवाने के लिए कौन से दस्तावेज देने होंगे-

  1. नाम और पेशा
  2. पते का विवरण
  3. शैक्षिक योग्यता
  4. कौशल विवरण
  5. पारिवारिक विवरण
  6. आधार नंबर/आधार कार्ड
  7. आधार से जुड़ा एक वैध मोबाइल नंबर।
  8. IFSC कोड के साथ बैंक खाता संख्या

Government Yojna – E Shram Card E-Shram पोर्टल पर कौन पंजीकरण कर सकता है?

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The 3 Biggest Disasters In Morbidly Obese

Morbidly obesity is something different from general obesity. It’s more fatal than common obesity. The focus of this discussion is on the effect of disasters on morbidly obese people and to observe the 3 biggest disasters in morbidly obese history.

content plump black woman in studio
Photo : Pexels.com/ The 3 biggest disasters in morbidly obese

Before going to main subject, we shall try to notice the exact definition of Morbid Obesity.

What Is Morbid Obesity? The 3 Biggest Disasters In Morbidly Obese

Obesity relates to being overweight and having excessive body fat. The most common method used to determine if a person is obese is known as the body mass index (BMI) calculator.

Eventually, it’s the only tool to measure whether your weight is within a healthy range in relation to your height. A person who is morbidly or severely obese will have too much body fat as per their height. This stage of obesity is also known as class III obesity.

The BMI classifications to measure weight in relation to health are as follows: Below 18.5 – underweight 18.5-24.9 – healthy 25.0-29.9 – overweight 30.0 and 39.9 – obese 40. 0 and above – morbidly obese. In cases of morbid obesity, the patient is one hundred pounds (≈7 stone) overweight and has a BMI of forty or higher.

Why Morbidly Obese people face problem during the time of disaster?

Generally, they are overweight and suffering from other health ailments such as postoperative gastrointestinal complaints, including nausea, vomiting, the dumping syndrome, and other complaints like ulcer, bowel obstructions, hernias, and adhesions.

Many morbidly obese people have food intolerances. They can’t tolerate dairy foods, bread, carbonated beverages, dry to sticky food, or foods of high sugar content.

Generally, medical providers and their patients understand the word “morbid” differently. The preferred term is no longer “morbid obesity”. At present, it is using either “class 3 obesity” or “severe obesity.”

This allows medical providers to communicate that this level of excess weight is a serious health problem without sounding judgmental. The diseases of overweight and obesity are classified into increasing BMI levels that have increasingly higher levels of health consequences.

Levels of Obesity based On BMI

The following are levels of obesity based on BMI: Overweight: BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m² Class I Obesity: BMI 30.0-34.9 kg/m² Class II Obesity: BMI 35.0-39.9 kg/m² Class III Obesity: BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m² .

Mainly the Body weight of a person is 100 pounds or more is morbid obesity. It is above their ideal body weight Or, a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 40 or greater. A BMI of 35 or greater and one or more co-morbid condition is considered to be morbidly obese.

Problems In Morbid Obesity

Morbid obesity interferes with basic physical functions such as breathing problems or walking and sitting problems. Shorter life expectancy and serious health consequences are the major difficulties in the patient with morbid obesity.

Eventually, they have to encounter type 2 diabetes and heart disease also. As a result, they are a social burden and economic problem.

Morbid Obesity : Public Health Issue/6 Week’s Yoga Chart to Reduce Obesity

Obesity is a serious health issue not only in the U.S but throughout the world. 24 million U.S. adults are living with morbid obesity and may qualify for bariatrics surgery.

Morbid Obesity Statistics

However, Morbid Obesity is a serious public health issue throughout the world. More than 24 million U.S. According to the Barbarities speciality Doctors: The higher the level of excess weight, the higher the risk of serious physical and mental health ailments. Even they have to face an early death. Generally, their lifespan is 13 to 15 years shorter than the normal weight mass.

I have seen it before my eyes. A student of mine who was then a student at Post Graduation, only son of his father ( mother died before) got married. Suddenly one day I saw his father on the road wearing a white dhuti (which Bengalees use during funerals).

I asked him, Sir, What happened?

He told me, ” Shuvoda is no more. He had died of a heart attack. He went to attend a marriage ceremony. After taking heavy dinner, when he was in bed, suddenly he died at heart attack. ” This is undoubtedly a tremendous blow-up to his family.

His wife was then pregnant. Shuvoda’s weight was more than 100 kg. He was then only 27. What a tragic death it is! So morbid obesity is a fatal disease. Overweight and obesity, especially morbid or class 3 obesity, is very problematic and has multifaceted dimensions issues.

Another example of untimely death is what happened in my closest relative. He was the son of my elder sister. He worked in a primary school as a fine arts teacher. He was obese. He died of a heart attack after battling 15 days in Hospital. Only 49 years old he was.

Morbid or severe obesity is not only a physical or appearance related problem, it creates a lot of other problems. There are definite problems with discrimination, social bias, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem, but the problem is more extensive.

There are so many morbid obesity-related problems. Obviously, it comes from the strain on the body while carrying extra weight. They suffer from Hypertension, congestive heart failure, sleep apnea, shortness of breath, nerve pain, arthritis, back pain, heartburn, leg swelling, varicose veins etc.

Even they are usually face bad cholesterol and severe heart attack, Increased risk of many cancers Type 2 diabetes, Fatty liver disease, Dementia, Kidney disease, Gout, Asthma, and Blood clots, rheumatoid arthritis etc.

In addition, these morbidly obese people often require protein-rich foods. Sometimes they need to avoid dehydration. As a result, the complicated logistics of nutritional supplements and support in a disaster may put these patients at risk for a variety of gastrointestinal complaints, poor wound healing, and also dehydration.

The 3 Biggest Disasters In Morbidly Obese

Now, let’s come to depict 3 disasters in morbidly obese history. These are namely 1. Chemical, Biological and Radiological Disaster 2. Natural Disaster and 3. Trauma, Blast and Burn Injury.

Natural Disaster In Recent Times:

Last two decades we have experienced various types of disasters. The year 2017 may be remembered for a multitude of disasters around the world. These are Hurricane Hervey, Irma and Maria that devastated public lives. Tsunami held few years ago in Sri Lanka and other areas. So many people died, and some people were rehabilitated in a safe place.

Another natural disaster is earthquake. It devastated many lives in Japan, Nepal and Sikkim of India. Harvey and Irma devastated Island nations in the Caribbean and the United States of America, and deadly earthquakes in Mexico and tremendous flooding to South Asia.

Chemical, Biological and Radiological Disasters

Modern Science is undoubtedly a blessing to human society. From cultivation to communication, in every field of life, we are enjoying so many facilities with the help of science. But it has pros and cons. We know about pros of science. Medical science has developed a lot. We are getting its benefits. But misuse of too much chemical is ruining our body and mind.

Besides, some developed countries are making bioweapon. Both chemical and biological disasters are harmful to morbidly obese people. Poisoning environment is also a disaster for morbidly obese patients. As they need maximum pure oxygen, due to lack of it, they are unable to survive.

Last but not least, a traumatic or burn injury is a horrible disaster for morbidly obese people. If happened to them such kind of disaster, they need sufficient assistance for rehabilitation. Due to high morbidity, they can’t move in a safe place individually and need the help of volunteers. Otherwise, they can’t survive. We know numerous cases of traumatic patients who were brunt, but due to heavy fat, they couldn’t able to save themselves.

References

1. Hensrud D., Klein S. Extreme obesity: a new medical crisis in the United States. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81(Suppl 10):S5–10. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

2. Lurie N. H1N1 influenza, public health preparedness and health care reform. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:843–845. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

3. DeMaria E. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2176–2183. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

4. McMahon M., Sarr M., Clark M. Clinical management after bariatric surgery: value of a multidisciplinary approach. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81(Suppl 10):S34–45. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

5. Kahn C.A., Oman J.A., Rudkin S.E. Can ED staff accurately estimate the weight of adult patients? Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25:307–312. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

6. Block J., DeSalvo K., Fisher W. Are physicians equipped to address the obesity epidemic? Knowledge and attitudes of internal medicine residents. Prev Med. 2003;36:669–675. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

7. Berger E. Emergency departments shoulder challenges of providing care, providing dignity for the “super obese” Ann Emerg Med. 2007;50(4):443–445. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

8. Gougelet R. Dartmouth Medical School, New England Center for Emergency Preparedness; Lebanon (NH): 2009. Modular medical systems (MEMS) for all types of catastrophic emergencies: a guide for community preparedness. [Google Scholar]

9. Gifford A., Gougelet R. Intensive care unit microcosm within disaster medical response. In: Geiling J., editor. Fundamental disaster medicine. Society of Critical Care Medicine; Mount Prospect (IL): 2009. pp. 2.1–2.14. [Google Scholar]

10. Gifford A., Spiro P. Augmenting critical care capacity during a disaster. In: Geiling J., editor. Fundamental disaster medicine. Society of Critical Care Medicine; Mount Prospect (IL): 2009. pp. 3.1–3.10. [Google Scholar]

11. Jbeili C., Penet C., Jabre P. [Out-of-hospital management characteristics of severe obese patients]Ann Fr Anesth Réanim. 2007;26:921–926. [in French] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

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13. Grant P., Newcombe





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Kali: Iconography and Personality

Kali: Iconography and Personality

    Iconography and Persona 

KALI’S’ APPEARANCE AND PERSONALITY

Introduction

In my previous post, I discussed the various names of mother Kali under the heading ” Etymology of Kali “. Today, we are to make a pen picture of Kali: iconography and personality. Goddess kali is one of the most popular deities in the Hindu Pantheon.

Kali usually represents the dark side and contrary aspects of the cosmos. She challenges the very concept of divinity through her naked form and her association with violence. Hence, over the centuries, she
has been represented in a whole gamut of conflicting images from a dangerous
bloody goddess to a benign goddess.

Visual Form of Kali: iconography and personality

art festival statue design
Photo :Pexels.com/Kali: Iconography and personality

So to understand Kali, it is important to go through her visual forms or iconography and personality. Her silhouette, size, colour, posture, surroundings, etc are designed differently. It is also necessary to understand her origin, mythologies, metamorphosis, allegorical associations and ideological interpretations.

In this article, we have attempted to present her pre-iconographical description, iconographical analysis and iconological interpretation as expressed by Erwin Panofsky, the Saussure of Visual Culture. The name of his epoch-making essay is “Iconography and Iconology: An Introduction to the Study of
Renaissance Art.”


Panofsky described Kali’s outer appearance in detail. The outstretched tongue of Kali distinguishes her from all other Hindu goddesses. Her outlook, as her unbounded hair, nakedness, association with blood and
unbridled sexuality show, has challenged the conventional image of divinity. So, for
a uniformed eye, she appears to be more bloodthirsty rather than a manifestation
of the divine.


In this regard, to understand Kali’s pre-iconographical description, it is necessary to appreciate the Hindu concept of the divine. Similarly, Hindus have taken divine in
various forms such as humans, animals, plants and minerals where each form has its ritual and its respective narrative serves as a gateway to realising the ultimate unmanifest godhood.

According to David Kinsley, “male form of divine represents spirituality and the female form symbolises the reality” (22). But as a “goddess,” Kali embodies material realities
and spirituality, a totality of nature, as she is herself a creator as well as a destroyer. ! e picture below is the Hindu goddess Kali
upon which, now onwards, I look spiritually as a follower of Hindu religion and aesthetically as a critic of visual arts.

Various Manifestation Of Kali: iconography and personality

Numerous are Kali’s manifestations; however, her external appearance, both in texts as well as art, basic nature and overall personality do not vary much. In her usual form, the black-hued Kali is a terrible awe-inspiring divinity frightening all by her appearance. Except that some of her body parts are covered by her ornaments, she is invariably naked.

An emaciated figure with long dishevelled hair and gruesome face, Kali has been conceived with any number of arms from two to eighteen, and sometimes even twenty or more, though her more usual form being four-armed. The four arms are interpreted as symbolising her ability to operate into and command all four directions, that is, the cosmos in aggregate.

She has long sharp fangs, alike long ugly nails, a fire-emitting third eye on her forehead, a lolling tongue and a blood-smeared mouth, which, when expanded, not only swallows hordes of demons but its lower part extends to the ocean’s depth and upper, beyond the sky. When required to lick blood falling from a fleeing demon’s body she extends her tongue to any length and turns it faster than the wind in whichever direction the blood falls.

In her more usual iconography Kali carries in one of her four hands an unsheathed sword – her instrument to overcome enemies and command evils, in another, a severed demon head, and other two are held in postures denotative of abhaya and varada – fearlessness and benevolence. Sometimes, the severed head is replaced with a skull-bowl filled with blood.

Mother Kali

Abhaya is the essence of Kali’s entire being. One of the permanent dispositions of her mind, ‘abhaya’ is her assurance against all fears which, embodied in her, are rendered inoperative or to operate only as commanded.

Denotative of her boundless power to destroy, Kali’s frightening aspect is her power to dispel evil and wickedness, and in this the freedom from fear is re-assured. Kali’s usual place is a battlefield where all around lay scattered pools of blood, headless torsos, severed heads, arms and other body-parts.

When not in battlefield, Kali roams around cremation ground where death’s silence reigns except when yelling winds, groans of wailing jackals or sound of fluttering wings of vultures tearing corpses lying around break it. Its abyssal darkness, which flames of pyres occasionally lit, is what suits Kali most.

On the battlefield or otherwise, she walks on foot. Except rarely when she borrows or forcibly takes Durga’s lion or Shiva’s Nandi, Kali does not use a mount, an animal or whatever, either to ride or to assist her in her battle.

Kali Dances to Destroy

She dances to destroy and under her dancing feet lay the corpse of destruction. Standing or seated, she has under her a sprawling ithyphallic corpse, not lotuses, the favourite seat of most other deities. She stands upon nonexistence – the corpse of the ruined universe, but which nonetheless contains the seed of new birth.

In her imagery while the corpse represents non-existence or ruined universe, Kali’s figure engaged in union either with Shiva or his Shava symbolise continuum of creative process.

Kali : the Power of Time

The manifest universe is what veils Time but when Kali, the Power of Time, has destroyed the manifest universe, that veil is lifted and Time, and correspondingly Kali, the Power of Time, is rendered naked, a phenomenon that Kali’s naked form denotes.

By nature, Kali is always hungry and never sated. She laughs so loud that all three worlds shake with terror. She dances madly not merely trampling upon corpses but also on the live cosmos reducing it to non-existence. She crushes, breaks, tramples upon and burns her enemies or those of her devotees.

Kali is not only a deity of independent nature but is also indomitable, or rather all dominating. She is Shiva-like, powerful, unconventional and more at home when dwelling on society’s margins. Aspects of nobility or elite life model are not her style of life.

Kali: Iconography and personality / the Wild and Destructive

She is Shiva’s consort or companion but not Parvati-like meek and humble. Wild and destructive, she incites Shiva to resort to wild, dangerous and destructive behaviour threatening the stability of the cosmos. Every moment a warrior, Kali does not miss any opportunity of war; She is one of Shiva’s warriors in his battle against Tripura.

Kali is often thought to be the dual, dark aspect of his Parvati, typically presented at Shiva’s wife as the goddess of light, harmony, nourishment, and motherhood. In many stories, Parvati shed a darker skin that manifested as the more monstrous and violent, and altogether less human, Kali.

Therefore, Kali represents death and destruction, sexuality, violence and doomsday, but is also depicted as a goddess of sexuality. She is known as the embodiment of divine female power, known as “Shakti.”

Kali as Famine Energy / Iconography and personality

In numerous images, Kali is depicted as standing over her husband Shiva, which many have read as a symbolic take on the ways man’s ego and dominance always submits to feminine energy. This particular Kali vs. Shiva imagery has been claimed in modern times as an embodiment of female power, sexual liberation, and feminist iconography. Her subjugation of Shiva is also a nod to the necessity of humility in the face of divine power. Read also: Why She is Called “Kali?”

Why She is Called “Kali?”

art travel statue castle
Photo: Pexels.com/ Why She is called Kali?

This is an important question why she is called Kali? It’s the question of hundreds of thousands of devotees. Generally, some people think that Her appearance is black, so we address her by that name. Is it true? I think this simplification of Her name is not express the inner meaning.

The Goddess Kali is the Goddess of Time. She is one of the most popular goddesses of Hindus after Durga Ma. There is a great significance in the name ” Kali “. But the name is different in other languages. Here it is with etymology: 

Etymology Of the Name

Devanagari    काली

Tamil script    காளி

Kālī (Sanskrit: काली, IPA: [kɑːliː]; Bengali: কালী; Tamil: காளி), also known as Kalika (Bengali: কালিকা, Kālikā), is the Hindu goddess associated with eternal energy. 

      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE NAME

The name Kali comes from kāla, which means black, time, death, lord of death, Shiva. The meaning of the name is “the black one”. Since Shiva is called Kāla – the eternal time, Kālī, his consort, also means “the Time” or “Death” (as in time has come). Hence, She is considered the goddess of time and change. 

    SHAKTA TANTRIC BELIEF

  Although sometimes people present kali as dark and violent.Her earliest incarnation as a figure of annihilation still has some influence. Various Shakta Hindu cosmologies, as well as Shakta Tantric beliefs, worship her as the ultimate reality or Brahman. Some worship her as Bhavatarini (literally “redeemer of the universe”). Comparatively recent devotional movements largely conceive Kali as a benevolent mother goddess.

On the other hand, Some scholars represent Kali as the consort of Lord Shiva. There she is standing on the body of Shiva. She is associated with many other Hindu goddesses like Durga, Bhadrakali, Sati, Rudrani, Parvati and Chamunda. She is the foremost among the Dasa Mahavidyas, ten fierce Tantric goddesses.[1]

DEFINITION AND DERIVATION

Kālī is the feminine of kāla (“black, dark coloured”).[2] Kāla primarily means “black,” but also means “time.” The word means “the black one” and also “time” or “beyond time.” Kali is strongly associated with Shiva, and Shaivas derive her feminine name from the masculine Kāla (an epithet of Shiva). The nineteenth century Sanskrit dictionary, the Shabdakalpadruma, states: कालः शिवः । तस्य पत्नीति – काली । kālaḥ śivaḥ । tasya patnīti kālī – “Shiva is Kala, thus his wife is Kali.”

OTHER NAMES:

Other names include Kālarātri (“black night”), as described above, and Kālikā (“relating to time”). Coburn notes that the name Kālī can be used as a proper name, or as a description of color.[3]

Kali’s association with blackness stands in contrast to her consort, Shiva, whose body is covered by the white ashes of the cremation ground (Sanskrit: śmaśāna). He meditates there. As He spent in the creamation ground, so Kali is also associated, as śmaśāna-kālī.

She is frequently confused with the word kali, as in Kali Yuga or the demon Kali. However, the words Kālī (“black, time”) and kali (“weak, crude, inarticulate”) are etymologically unrelated, and the goddess Kālī is not associated with Kali Yuga in Hinduism.

Kali (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Kali (demon) or Mahakali.

Kali (/ˈkɑːliː/; Sanskrit: काली, IAST: Kālī), also familiar as Kalika (Sanskrit: कालिका), is a Hindu goddess. Hindus consider Her as mistress of death, time, and change. According to Shaktism, she is a form of Parvati, the supreme of all powers, or the ultimate reality. 

   MOTHER OF THE UNIVERSE: WHY IS SHE CALLED SO

 It’s clear that goddess’s earliest appearance is when she emerged from Shiva. She is the ultimate manifestation of Shakti and the mother of all living beings. The goddess destroys evil in order to protect the innocent. Over time, devotional movements and Tantric sects wirshipped Him variously as the Divine Mother, Mother of the Universe, Adi Shakti, or Parvati.[1][2][3] 

     Besides,  Shakta Hindu and Tantric sects additionally worship her as the ultimate reality or Brahman.[3] She is also seen as the divine protector and the one who bestows moksha or liberation.[1]So, She is the Goddess of War, Time, Change, Creation, Destruction and Power. Kaali the Divine Mother.

Image: pixels /
statue of hindu god kali puja on black background
Photo: Pexels.com/

Kaali the Divine Mother

KALI THE DIVINE MOTHER & A CONTROVERSY 

statue of hindu god kali puja on black background
Photo : Pexels.com/Kali the divine mother

We, the Hindus, believe in and respect our God and Goddess. We also respect others’ religious beliefs and practices. Recently controversy has been running hot in the media and Facebook – Twitter when a film director tweeted a picture of her film ” Kaali. There Mother Kali is ” depicted smoking cigarettes. So netizens are not happy with it. They won’t take it lightly, especially political leaders and the people who are devotees of the goddess. Both sides are rigid in their ideology. So being interested, I’m writing a book on the subject ” Kaali: A Chasing in the Dark. I shall continue writing on this subject which consists of 22 chapters. I think that the readers would have enjoyed this series of blogs regarding this evergreen content.

Kali is our Divine Mother. She is the Hindu Goddess of time, of change. She is the power of action, of the breath and the Mother of transformation (kriya-shakti). Kali’s essence is Divine Love. Through time, breath and Divine Love all things are accomplished. If we surrender to Her essence, She creates the energy and all is possible. When we internalize this energy and surrender to its sweet transformative power of love, we begin our inward journey towards healing and spiritual growth.

# Kali the divine mother

Saints Ramakrishna, Swami Vivekananda, Bamakhyapa, and Ramprasad are some of the legendary devotees of Kali. One thing was common to these saints — all of them loved the goddess as intimately as they loved their own mother. “My child, you need not know much in order to please Me. Only Love Me dearly. Speak to me, as you would talk to your mother if she had taken you in her arms.”

Kali takes away our darkness – our kala. She takes away the darkness from everyone who strives for perfection by performing the spiritual disciplines of purifying austerities.

“Kala” also means time. On the other hand, Kali means the One Who is Beyond Time.

In the form of Prakriti, Mother Nature, Kali dances on the field of consciousness. Worshipers used to see that Kali is depicted as the broad chest of Lord Shiva. She dances with wild and unselfconscious abandon. She is Mukti. On other words, she is the primal energy of spiritual freedom.

Kali Mata is the Energy of Wisdom (jnana shakti). We achieve and conceive knowledge by Her Grace. So we can say that all knowledge is conceived, and all wisdom is intuited by Her blessings. With Her wisdom, Kali takes away the darkness of the external world. Then She bestows the True Light of the inner world. Her love and her grace are beyond what words can describe.

Kali is our Divine Mother and the Mother of all the universes. With Her love we become unattached and free from action and reaction. So we become a silent witness resting in universal delight.

When one can reside within, without identification or attachment to the ever-changing external influences, then the Supreme Truth can be realized. This is the path that Mother Kali shows us.

By spreading Her darkness over worldly desire, Kali makes seekers totally oblivious to the transient external elements. They then become totally contained in the Self.

To worship Mother Kali, we perform Her Puja, sing Her names, and recite Her mantras. We remember Her in both times of ease and in times of difficulties.

Appearance and Symbolism#kali the divine mother

Kali’s fierce form is strewed with awesome symbols. Her black complexion symbolises her all-embracing and nature.

Says the Maha nirvana Tantra: “Just as all colours disappear in black, so all names and forms disappear in her ”. Her nudity is primaeval, fundamental, and transparent like Nature — the earth, sea, and sky. Kali is free from the illusory covering, for she is beyond the all Maya or “false consciousness.” Kali’s garland of fifty heads stands for the fifty letters in the Sanskrit alphabet and symbolises infinite knowledge.

Her girdle of severed hands signifies work and liberation from the cycle of karma. Her white teeth show her inner purity, and her red lolling tongue indicates her omnivorous nature — “her indiscriminate enjoyment of all the world’s ‘flavors’.” Her sword is the destroyer of false consciousness and the eight bonds that bind us.

Her three eyes represent past, present, and future, — the three modes of time — an attribute that lies in the very name Kali (‘Kala’ in Sanskrit means time).

Kali’s proximity to cremation grounds where the five elements or “Pancha Mahabhuta” come together, and all worldly attachments are absolved, again point to the cycle of birth and death. The reclined Shiva lying prostrate under the feet of Kali suggests that without the power of Kali (Shakti), Shiva is inert.

Kaali or Kali is the Hindu goddess of death, time, and doomsday. We worship Kali as a divine mother. Our great Saint and Avtar, Sree Ramkrishna devoted his whole life to the feet of  Mother Kali for the betterment of mankind. ” Atmanang briddhi jagotdhitayach”. Sree Ramprasad, another eminent Sadhaka – poet of the nineteenth century worshipped Kali as their daughter. Above all, great Hindu monk Swami Vivekananda wrote a poem on Kali the Mother being overwhelmed during a visit to a Kali temple ” Khir Bhawani ” in Kashmir. His disciple, Irish woman, Sister Nivedita was voraciously influenced by her Master, and delivered a series of lectures in a public hall and also  Kalighat temple in Kolkata. 

Kaali through the Eyes of Modern Artists and Politicians #kali the divine mother

But Kali is most often represented in art in different ways. They paint Her as a fearful fighting figure with a necklace of heads, skirt of arms, lolling tongue, and brandishing a knife dripping with blood. 

Recently a film Director made a film where Goddess Kali is seen smoking cigarettes. So the controversy . Trinamool Congress MP Mahua Moitra on Tuesday said supporting the film director that Kaali for her was a meat-eating, alcohol-accepting goddess. Moitra said this while speaking at the India Today Conclave East 2022 and in response to a controversy over a movie poster showing Goddess Kaali.

Being an Indian Parliamentarian, she  on Tuesday reacted to this controversy over a movie poster showing Goddess Kaali smoking a cigarette. 

“Kaali to me, is a meat-eating, alcohol-accepting goddess. You have the freedom to imagine your goddess. There are some places where whiskey is offered to gods and in some other places it would be blasphemy,” 

“When you go to Sikkim, you will see that they offer whiskey to Goddess Kaali. But if you go to Uttar Pradesh, and if you tell them that you offer whiskey to the goddess as ‘prasad’, they will call it blasphemy,” said Moitra.

Moitra said this while responding to a question about her take on the controversy over a recent movie poster.

Therefore, the poster of the documentary film at the centre of the row recently went viral on social media. Several people said that the poster was an insult to the Hindu goddess and hurt religious sentiments.

The controversy erupted after filmmaker Leena Manimekalai shared the poster of the film on social media. The poster depicts a woman dressed in the costume of Goddess Kaali. She is seen smoking a cigarette in the photo. Along with her usual accoutrements of Trishul (trident), and sickle. Another MP said also that I don’t believe in hurting religious sentiments.

The poster of the documentary film at the centre of the row recently went viral on social media with several people saying that the poster was an insult to the Hindu goddess and hurt religious sentiments.

The poster of the documentary film sparked outrage in a sizable section of social media. Many even called for the arrest of the filmmaker.

people art festival luxury
Photo : Pexels.com/ kali the divine mother

On the other hand, Priyanka Chaturvedi says while protesting that freedom of expression cannot be reserved for Hindu Gods, on Kaali poster row.

She is Shiv Sena’s active member. She said that she was offended by the Kaali poster.

Taking to Twitter, she said, “Freedom of expression cannot be reserved for Hindu Gods and Goddesses, while for the rest one must tip toe around religious sensibilities.”

“I am offended by the movie poster on Maa Kaali, respect has to be equal for all,” she added.

Documentary Kaali showing the goddess smoking and holding an LGBTQ flag triggered controversy and filmmaker Leena Manimekalai was accused of hurting religious sentiments.

The Madurai-born filmmaker had shared the poster of the Kaali documentary on the microblogging site on Saturday and said the film was part of the ‘Rhythms of Canada’ segment at the Aga Khan Museum in Toronto.

Earlier in the day, speaking about the Kaali poster controversy, TMC MP Mahua Moitra had said Kaali, for her, was a meat-eating, alcohol-accepting goddess.

“When you go to Sikkim, you will see that they offer whiskey to Goddess Kaali. But if you go to Uttar Pradesh, and if you tell them that you offer whiskey to the goddess as ‘prasad’, they will call it blasphemy,” said Moitra.

However, TMC condemned the statement and distanced itself from the comment saying, “The comments made by Mahua Moitra at the India Today Conclave East 2022 and her views expressed on Goddess Kali have been made in her personal capacity and are NOT of party stand. 

Netizens have alleged that the movie’s poster is an insult to the Hindu goddess and hurts religious sentiments.

With Twitterati demanding action against its maker Leena Manimekalai, the hashtag #ArrestLeenaManimekalai began trending on the microblogging platform.

Shashi Tharoor backs TMC’s Mahua Moitra after row escalates over controversial Kaali remark.

The Indian High Commission in Canada on Monday issued a statement on the ‘smoking Kaali’ poster by filmmaker Leena Manimekalai.

The Indian High Commission in Canada on Monday issued a statement on ‘smoking Kaali’ poster by filmmaker Leena Manimekalai, and urged the Canadian authorities and the event organizers to withdraw “all such provocative material”.

In a statement, the High Commission said that they have received complaints from leaders of the Hindu community in Canada about “disrespectful depiction of Hindu Gods on the poster of a film showcased as part of the ‘Under the Tent’ project at the Aga Khan Museum, Toronto.”

“Our Consulate General in Toronto has conveyed these concerns to the organizers of the event,” read the statement.

“We are also informed that several Hindu groups have approached authorities in Canada to take action. We urge the Canadian authorities and the event organizers to withdraw all such provocative material,” it added.

Kaali controversy: Kali the Divine Mother

Soon after she shared the poster, Leena Manimekalai was at the receiving end of online brickbats. Social media users asked the Aga Khan Museum, where the film was launched, to take it down immediately.

Meanwhile, the maker of the film, Leena Manimekalai, has urged people to watch the movie first before vilifying it.

Others said it was blasphemous and hurtful to religious sentiments. Some appealed to Home Minister Amit Shah and PMO to take action.

The maker of the film has urged people to watch the movie first before vilifying it.

“The film talks about the events when Kaali appears in an evening and takes a stroll in the streets of Toronto. Once you watch the movie, you’ll change the hashtag from #ArrestLeenaManimekalai to ‘love you Leena manimekalai’,” she tweeted.

The furore over the film Kaali comes at a time when there has been an international controversy over remarks made on Prophet Muhammad. Nupur Sharma remarks it in a TV debate show. Ultimately, BJP suspended Nupur who was a BJP spokesperson. The row threw open Pandora’s box and sparked debate over what is blasphemy and what constitutes freedom of expression.

However, we are serious here to know about the goddess Kali. Who are this powerful super soul and divine mother goddess Kali? Why did most of the Hindus worship her? Why did a man like Swami Vivekananda regard Mother Kali? Even he wrote a poem ” Kali the Mother “. We shall try to depict a clear picture of Ma Kali so that the readers can feel distinctly why we, the Hindus, regard Kali as a Divine Mather. Let’s Stretch Your Hands To Me, Mother.

For details read the book” Kali the Divine Mother: The Chasing in the Dark. The book contains 21 Chapter, Words almost 50000 thousand. Read and share your thoughts.

Kaali

                     A 

     Chasing in the Dark 

statue of hindu god kali puja on black background
Photo: Pexels.com/ Kali a chasing in the dark

DR. SUSHIL RUDRA Ph.D 

              eBook

  Kindle Direct Publishing, India 

2022, 10th Ulto-Rath   

    DEDICATED TO MY READERS 

   PREFACE : KALI A CHASING IN THE DARK

We, the Hindus believe and respect our God and Goddess. Recently a controversy has been running in the media and Facebook – twitter when a film director tweeted a picture of her film ” Kaali ” depicting kaali smoking cigarettes. So netizens are not happy with it. They won’t take it lightly, specially political leaders and the people who are devotee of the goddess . Both of the sides are rigid in their ideology. Being interested, I’m writing a book on Kaali : A Chasing in the Dark. I shall continue writing my blog on this subject which is consisting of 22 chapters. I think that the readers would have been enjoyed this series of blogs regarding this evergreen content.

Our great Saint and Avtar, Sri Ramkrishna devoted his whole life for the service of Mother Kali. Sri Ramprasad, another eminent Sadhaka – poet of nineteenth century worshipped Kali as daughter. Above all, great Hindu monk Swami Vivekananda wrote a poem on Kali the Mother being overwhelmed during visit a Kali temple ” Khirbhabani ” in Kashmir. His disciple, Irish woman, Sister Nivedita was voraciously influenced by her Master, delivered a series of lectures in a public hall and also  Kalighat temple in Kolkata. 

On the other hand, some talented artists and so-called intellectuals painted Kali as a sexual famine. Goddess Kali and Saraswati are most often represented in art as a fearful fighting figure with a necklace of heads, a skirt of arms, a lolling tongue, and brandishing a knife dripping with blood. Indian veteran artist Mukbal Fida painted a naked Saraswati idol which hurt the sentiment of Hindus. Is it fair?

Recently a film Director made a film where Goddess Kali is seen smoking cigarettes. Trinamool Congress MP Mahua Moitra on Tuesday said supporting the film director that Kaali for her was a meat-eating, alcohol-accepting goddess. Moitra said this while speaking at the India Today Conclave East 2022 and in response to a controversy over a movie poster showing Goddess Kaali.

 Although Kaali is an ancient and mythological Hindu Goddess and still Hindus regard Ma Kali as a creator of the Universe and Saviour of all mankind. 

We depicted in this book about the origin and development of thoughts and myths on Kali. There are 20  chapters which are titled by different names to identify the subject matter. Readers can open any chapter and enjoy it as a whole content. 

   I hope that this book will be a source of knowledge about the Hindu religion and the treasures of ancient India. Any suggestions and advice are always welcome. 

 

 

 

 

Kali

                    A 

     Chasing in the Dark 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

  • Introduction: Kali The Divine Mother & Controversy 
  • Etymology: Kali 
  • Origin – Legend of Kali Ma
  • Iconography and Persona 
  • Kali’s  Forms 
  • Popular Form 
  • Worship and Mantra 
  • Kali: The Personification 
  • Puranic Account
  • The Role in Modern India
  • In Bengal Tradition: 19th Century Saint and Poet 
  • Why Kali? Why did Sri Ramkrishna Choose Kali 
  • Kali: The symbol of death 
  • Swami Vivekananda’s ” Kali the Mother ” 
  • S Aurobindo’s view on Kali
  • Kali as Source of Power and Divine Spirit  
  • Sister Nivedita On Kali 
  • Netaji Subhas: Patriot and  Sadhak Of Kali 
  • Modern  Interpretation: Kali 
  •  Kali Worship in Western World
  • Reference  
  • Final Words: An EARNEST REQUEST 

          CHAPTER : 1

     Kali: A Chasing in the Dark #CONTROVERSY 

We, the Hindus believe and respect our God and Goddess. Recently a controversy has been running in the media and Facebook – twitter when a film director tweeted a picture of her film ” Kaali ” depicting kaali smoking cigarettes. So netizens are not get it lightly, specially political leaders and the people who are devotee of the goddess. Both of the sides are rigid in their ideology. Being interested, I’m writing a book on ” Kaali : A Chasing in the Dark”. I shall continue writing my blog on this subject which is consisting of 22 chapters. I think that the readers would have been enjoyed this series of blogs regarding this evergreen content.

Kaali or Kali is the Hindu goddess of death, time, and doomsday. We worship Kali as spiritual mother. Our great Saint and Avtar, Sree Ramkrishna devoted his whole life for the service of Mother Kali. Sree Ramprasad, another eminent Sadhaka – poet of nineteenth century worshipped Kali as daughter. Above all, great Hindu monk Swami Vivekananda wrote a poem on Kali the Mother being overwhelmed during visit a Kali temple ” Khirbhabani ” in Kashmir. His disciple, Irish woman, Sister Nivedita was voraciously influenced by her Master, delivered a series of lectures in a public hall and also  Kalighat temple in Kolkata. 

On the other hand, some talented artists and so-called intellectuals painted Kali as a sexual famine. Goddess Kali and Saraswati are most often represented in art in different ways – either as a fearful fighting figure with a necklace of heads, a skirt of arms, a lolling tongue, and brandishing a knife dripping with blood or as a sexual feminine . Indian veteran artist Mukbal Fida painted a naked Saraswati idol which hurt the sentiment of Hindus. Is it fair?

Recently a film Director made a film where Goddess Kali is seen smoking cigarettes. Trinamool Congress MP Mahua Moitra on Tuesday said supporting the film director that Kaali for her was a meat-eating, alcohol-accepting goddess. Moitra said this while speaking at the India Today Conclave East 2022 and in response to a controversy over a movie poster showing Goddess Kaali.

Being an Indian Parliamentarian, she  on Tuesday reacted to a controversy over a movie poster showing Goddess Kaali smoking a cigarette. 

“Kaali to me, is a meat-eating, alcohol-accepting goddess. You have the freedom to imagine your goddess. There are some places where whiskey is offered to gods and in some other places it would be blasphemy,” 

“When you go to Sikkim, you will see that they offer whiskey to Goddess Kaali. But if you go to Uttar Pradesh, and if you tell them that you offer whiskey to the goddess as ‘prasad’, they will call it blasphemy,” said Moitra.

Moitra said this while responding to a question about her take on the controversy over a recent movie poster showing Goddess Kaali is smoking a cigarette.

The poster of the documentary film at the centre of the row recently went viral on social media with several people saying that the poster was an insult to the Hindu goddess and hurt religious sentiments.

The controversy erupted after filmmaker Leena Manimekalai shared the poster of the film on social media. The poster depicts a woman dressed in the costume of Goddess Kaali. She is seen smoking a cigarette in the photo. Along with her usual accoutrements of trishul (trident), and sickle. Another MP said also that I don’t believe in hurting religious sentiments: Nusrat Jahan on Kaali controversy.

Moitra said this while responding to a question about her take on the controversy over a recent movie poster. 

The poster of the documentary film at the centre of the row recently went viral on social media with several people saying that the poster was an insult to the Hindu goddess and hurt religious sentiments.

The poster of the documentary film sparked outrage in a sizeable section of social media. Many even called for the arrest of the filmmaker.

On the other hand, Priyanka Chaturvedi says with protesting that freedom of expression cannot be reserved for Hindu Gods, on Kaali poster row.

She is Shiv Sena’s active member. She said that she was offended by the Kaali poster and pointed out that freedom of expression cannot be reserved for Hindu Gods.

Taking to Twitter, she said, “Freedom of expression cannot be reserved for Hindu Gods and Goddesses, while for the rest one must tip toe around religious sensibilities.”

“I am offended with the movie poster on Ma Kaali, respect has to be equal for all,” she added.

Documentary Kaali showing the goddess smoking and holding an LGBTQ flag triggered controversy and filmmaker Leena Manimekalai was accused of hurting religious sentiments.

The Madurai-born filmmaker had shared the poster of Kaali documentary on the microblogging site on Saturday and said the film was part of the ‘Rhythms of Canada’ segment at the Aga Khan Museum in Toronto.

Earlier in the day, speaking about the Kaali poster controversy, TMC MP Mahua Moitra had said Kaali, for her, was a meat-eating, alcohol-accepting goddess.

However, TMC condemned the statement and distanced itself from the comment saying, “The comments made by Mahua Moitra at the India Today Conclave East 2022 and her views expressed on Goddess Kali have been made in her personal capacity and are NOT of party stand. 

Netizens have alleged that the movie’s poster is an insult to the Hindu goddess and hurts religious sentiments.

With Twitterati demanding action against its maker Leena Manimekalai, the hashtag #ArrestLeenaManimekalai began trending on the micro-blogging platform.

Shashi Tharoor backs TMC’s Mahua Moitra after row escalates over controversial Kaali remark.

Kali : Chasing in the Dark @ Indian High Commission in Canada

The Indian High Commission in Canada on Monday issued a statement on ‘smoking Kaali’ poster by filmmaker Leena Manimekalai.

The Indian High Commission in Canada on Monday issued a statement on ‘smoking Kaali’ poster by filmmaker Leena Manimekalai, and urged the Canadian authorities and the event organizers to withdraw “all such provocative material”.

In a statement, the High Commission said that they have received complaints from leaders of the Hindu community in Canada about “disrespectful depiction of Hindu Gods on the poster of a film showcased as part of the ‘Under the Tent project at the Aga Khan Museum, Toronto.”

“Our Consulate General in Toronto has conveyed these concerns to the organisers of the event,” read the statement.

“We are also informed that several Hindu groups have approached authorities in Canada to take action. We urge the Canadian authorities and the event organizers to withdraw all such provocative material,” it added.

Kaali controversy: Chasing in the Dark

Soon after she shared the poster, Leena Manimekalai was at the receiving end of online brickbats. Social media users asked the Aga Khan Museum, where the film was launched, to take it down immediately.

Meanwhile, the maker of the film, Leena Manimekalai, has urged people to watch the movie first before vilifying it.

Others said it was blasphemous and hurtful to religious sentiments. Some appealed to Home Minister Amit Shah and PMO to take action.

The maker of the film has urged people to watch the movie first before vilifying it.

“The film talks about the events when Kaali appears in an evening and takes a stroll in the streets of Toronto. Once you watch the movie, you’ll change the hashtag from #ArrestLeenaManimekalai to ‘love you Leena manimekalai’,” she tweeted.

The furore over the film Kaali comes at a time when there has been an international controversy over remarks made on Prophet Muhammad by suspended BJP spokesperson Nupur Sharma. The row threw open a Pandora’s box and sparked debate over what is blasphemy and what constitutes freedom of expression. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA’S “KALI THE MOTHER”

Kali : A Chasing in the Dark # What We Feel

However, we are serious here to know about the goddess Kali. Who are this powerful super soul and divine mother goddess Kali? Why most of the Hindus used to worship her? Why does a man like Swami Vivekananda regard Mother Kali? Even he wrote a poem ” Kali the Mother “. We shall try to depict a clear picture of Ma Kali so that the readers can feel distinctly why we, the Hindus regard Kali as a World – Mather. 

To be continued….

6 Yoga Asana Can Cure Arthritis

 Dr. Sushil Rudra

  ARTHRITIS AND YOGA

persons hand on white textile
Photo: Pexels.com/ 6 yogasana can cure arthritis
people with umbrellas in rainy city
Photo : Pexels/ 6 yogasana can cure Arthritis

  TABLE OF CONTENTS: 6 YOGASANA CAN CURE ARTHRITIS

Arthritis is a fatal disease to be mostly seen in the rainy season. It is very painful. So here I am going to discuss some preventive measures. 6 Yogasana can cure arthritis. Generally, the monsoon season comes after the summer. We wait for this season because of the hot summer. In India, the rainy season comes after a drastic summer when we need cold and smooth weather. But monsoon can be fatal in arthritis.

Although during monsoon, the trees and fields become greenish and alive. But , too much rainfall can create floods and might be the cause of devastating situations. Moreover, some seasonal ailments like arthritis, fever and dysentery  might break out during this damp season. As a result, Monsoon can be fatal for arthritis. So we should be careful about our health.

WHAT IS ARTHRITIS? 

Arthritis can be fatal in monsoon , so practice yoga

TERMINOLOGY: 6 YOGASANA CAN CURE ARTHRITIS

Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.[2] Symptoms generally include joint pain and stiffness.[2] Other symptoms may include redness, warmth, swelling, and decreased range of motion of the affected joints.[2][3] In some types of arthritis, other organs are also affected.[6] Onset can be gradual or sudden.[5]

 TERMINOLOGY:

The term ” Arthritis” is derived from arthr- (from Ancient Greek: ἄρθρον, romanized: árthron, lit. ’joint’) and -itis (from -ῖτις, -îtis, lit. ’pertaining to’), the latter suffix having come to be associated with inflammation.

The word arthritides is the plural form of arthritis, and denotes the collective group of arthritis-like conditions.[109]

Pronunciation: Monsoon can be fatal for Arthritis

/ɑːrˈθraɪtɪs/[1]

Specialty

Rheumatology

Symptoms

Joint pain, stiffness, redness, swelling, decreased range of motion[2][3]

Types:

 100, most common (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis)[4][5][6]

Risk factors

Family history, Age, Your sex, Previous joint injury, Obesity.[7]

PRECAUTIONS:

Resting, applying ice or heat, weight loss, exercise, joint replacement. 

There are over 100 types of arthritis.[9][4][5] The most common forms are osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) and rheumatoid arthritis.[6] Osteoarthritis usually occurs with age and affects the fingers, knees, and hips.[10][6]

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that often affects the hands and feet.[6] Other types include gout, lupus, fibromyalgia, and septic arthritis.[6][11] They are all types of rheumatic disease.[2]

THE MOST FATAL TYPES OF ARTHRITIS: 6 YOGASANA CAN CURE

Although there are several deviations of Arthritis, the most common types are Rheumatoid Arthritis, Gout and Osteoarthritis.

It’s difficult to explain the root cause of all these kinds of Arthritis as there are various reasons for it. For example, it could be due to lack of proper diet, lack of proper exercise or body movement, lack of hygiene care, due to poor health and similar other factors.

Osteoarthritis affects more than 3.8% of people, while rheumatoid arthritis affects about 0.24% of people.[15] Gout affects about 1–2% of the Western population at some point in their lives.[16]

In Australia, about 15% of people are affected by arthritis,[17] while in the United States more than 20% have a type of arthritis.[11][18] Overall the disease becomes more common with age.[11]

       Arthritis is a common reason that people miss work and can result in a decreased quality of life.[8] The term is derived from Arthur (meaning ‘joint’) and -itis (meaning ‘inflammation’).[19][20]

Classification: 6 yogasana can cure arthritis

Monsoon can be fatal in Arthritis, so practice yoga

There are several diseases where joint pain is primary, and is considered the main feature. Generally when a person has “arthritis” it means that they have one of these diseases, which include:

Osteoarthritis[21]

Rheumatoid arthritis[22]

Gout and pseudogout[23]

Septic arthritis[24]

Ankylosing spondylitis[25]

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis[26]

Psoriatic arthritis[28]

Joint pain can also be a symptom of other diseases. In this case, the arthritis is considered to be secondary to the main disease; these include:

Psoriasis[29]

Reactive arthritis[30]

Ehlers–Danlos syndrome[31]

Iron overload[32]

Hepatitis[33][34]

Lyme disease[35]

Sjögren’s disease[36]

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis[37]

Celiac disease[38]

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity[39][40][41]

Inflammatory bowel disease (including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis)[42][43]

Henoch–Schönlein purpura[44]

Hyper immuno globulinemia D with recurrent fever

Sarcoidosis[45]

Whipple’s disease[46]

TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome[47]

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (and many other vasculitis syndromes)

Familial Mediterranean fever[48]

Systemic lupus erythematosus[49]

An undifferentiated arthritis is an arthritis that does not fit into well-known clinical disease categories, possibly being an early stage of a definite rheumatic disease.[50]

Signs and symptoms:

Extra-articular features of joint disease[51]

Cutaneous nodules

Cutaneous vasculitis lesions

Lymphadenopathy

Oedema

Ocular inflammation

Urethritis

Tenosynovitis (tendon sheath effusions)

Bursitis (swollen bursa)

Diarrhea

Orogenital ulceration.

Pain, which can vary in severity, is a common symptom in virtually all types of arthritis.[52][53] Other symptoms include swelling, joint stiffness, redness, and aching around the joint(s).[2] Arthritic disorders like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis can affect other organs in the body, leading to a variety of symptoms.[11] Symptoms may include:[2]

Inability to use the hand or walk

Stiffness in one or more joints

Rash or itch

Malaise and fatigue

Weight loss

Poor sleep

Muscle aches and pains

Tenderness

Difficulty moving the joint.

It is common in advanced arthritis for significant secondary changes to occur. For example, arthritic symptoms might make it difficult for a person to move around and/or exercise, which can lead to secondary effects, such as:

Illustration of gout affected foot.

Muscle weakness

Loss of flexibility

Decreased aerobic fitness

These changes, in addition to the primary symptoms, can have a huge impact on quality of life.

Disability: 6 yogasana can cure arthritis

Arthritis is the most common cause of disability in the United States. More than 20 million individuals with arthritis have severe limitations in function on a daily basis.[11] Absenteeism and frequent visits to the physician are common in individuals who have arthritis. Arthritis can make it difficult for individuals to be physically active and some become homebound.

It is estimated that the total cost of arthritis cases is close to $100 billion of which almost 50% is from lost earnings. Each year, arthritis results in nearly 1 million hospitalizations and close to 45 million outpatient visits to health care centers.[54]

Decreased mobility, in combination with the above symptoms, can make it difficult for an individual to remain physically active, contributing to an increased risk of obesity, high cholesterol or vulnerability to heart disease.[55] People with arthritis are also at increased risk of depression, which may be a response to numerous factors, including fear of worsening symptoms.[56]

Risk factors: 6 Yogasana can cure Arthritis

There are common risk factors that increase a person’s chance of developing arthritis later in adulthood. Some of these are modifiable while others are not.[57] Smoking has been linked to an increased susceptibility of developing arthritis, particularly rheumatoid arthritis.[58]

Diagnosis: 6 yogasana can cure arthritis

An appropriate health professional can diagnose through clinical examination. Besides, it will be supported by other tests such as radiology and blood tests. So it is depending on the tests. Then Doctor can say what type of arthritis[59] the patient is being attacked.

                All arthritides potentially feature pain. Pain patterns may differ depending on the arthritides and the location. Rheumatoid arthritis is generally worse in the morning and associated with stiffness lasting over 30 minutes.[60] 

         However, in the early stages, patients may have no symptoms after a warm shower. Osteoarthritis, on the other hand, tends to be associated with morning stiffness which eases relatively quickly with movement and exercise.

women doing exercise
Photo: Pexels.com/ 6 yogasana can cure arthritis

           In the aged and children, pain might not be the main presenting feature; the aged patient simply moves less, the infantile patient refuses to use the affected limb.

Elements of the history of the disorder guide diagnosis. Important features are speed and time of onset, pattern of joint involvement, symmetry of symptoms, early morning stiffness, tenderness, gelling or locking with inactivity, aggravating and relieving factors, and other systemic symptoms.

Therefore, Physical examination may confirm the diagnosis or may indicate systemic disease. Radiographs are often used to follow progression or help assess severity. Your Doctor might suggest you.

Blood tests and X-rays of the affected joints often are performed to make the diagnosis. Screening blood tests are indicated if certain arthritides are suspected. These might include: rheumatoid factor, antinuclear factor (ANF) etc.

Osteoarthritis: 6 Yogasana can cure Arthritis

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis.[61] It affects humans and other animals, notably dogs, but also occurs in cats and horses. It can affect both the larger and the smaller joints of the body. In humans, this includes the hands, wrists, feet, back, hip, and knee. In dogs, this includes the elbow, hip, stifle (knee), shoulder, and back.

The disease is essentially one acquired from daily wear and tear of the joint. However, osteoarthritis can also occur as a result of injury. Osteoarthritis begins in the cartilage and eventually causes the two opposing bones to erode into each other.

The condition starts with minor pain during physical activity, but soon the pain can be continuous and even occur while in a state of rest. The pain can be debilitating and prevent one from doing some activities.

In dogs, this pain can significantly affect quality of life and may include difficulty going up and down stairs, struggling to get up after lying down, trouble walking on slick floors, being unable to hop in and out of vehicles, difficulty jumping on and off furniture, and behavioral changes (e.g., aggression, difficulty squatting to toilet).[62]

Osteoarthritis typically affects the weight-bearing joints, such as the back, knee and hip. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis is most commonly a disease of the elderly. The strongest predictor of osteoarthritis is increased age, likely due to the declining ability of chondrocytes to maintain the structural integrity of cartilage. [63]

More than 30 percent of women have some degree of osteoarthritis by age 65. Other risk factors for osteoarthritis include prior joint trauma, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle.[64]

 Rheumatoid arthritis

Bone erosions by rheumatoid arthritis.[65]

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disorder in which the body’s own immune system starts to attack body tissues.[66] The attack is not only directed at the joint but to many other parts of the body.

In rheumatoid arthritis, most damage occurs to the joint lining and cartilage which eventually results in erosion of two opposing bones. RA often affects joints in the fingers, wrists, knees and elbows, is symmetrical (appears on both sides of the body), and can lead to severe deformity in a few years if not treated.

Rheumatic Arthritis occurs mostly in people aged 20 and above. In children, the disorder can present with a skin rash, fever, pain, disability, and limitations in daily activities.[67] With earlier diagnosis and aggressive treatment, many individuals can lead a better quality of life than if going undiagnosed for long after RA’s onset.[68]

The risk factors with the strongest association for developing rheumatoid arthritis are the female sex, a family history of rheumatoid arthritis, age, obesity, previous joint damage from an injury, and exposure to tobacco smoke.[69][70]

Bone erosion is a central feature of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone continuously undergoes remodeling by actions of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts.

One of the main triggers of bone erosion in the joints in rheumatoid arthritis is inflammation of the synovium. It is caused in part by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). It’s a cell surface protein present in Th17 cells and osteoblasts.[71] Osteoclast activity can be directly induced by osteoblasts through the RANK/RANKL mechanism.[72]

Lupus:

Main article: Lupus erythematosus

Lupus is a common collagen vascular disorder that can be present with severe arthritis. Other features of lupus include a skin rash, extreme photosensitivity, hair loss, kidney problems, lung fibrosis and constant joint pain.[73]

Gout: 

Gout is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints, causing inflammation. There is also an uncommon form of gouty arthritis caused by the formation of rhomboid crystals of calcium pyrophosphate known as pseudogout.

In the early stages, gouty arthritis usually occurs in one joint, but with time, it can occur in many joints and be quite crippling. The joints in gout can often become swollen and lose function.

Gouty arthritis can become particularly painful and potentially debilitating when gout cannot successfully be treated.[74] When uric acid levels and gout symptoms cannot be controlled with standard gout medicines that decrease the production of uric acid (e.g., allopurinol) or increase uric acid elimination from the body through the kidneys (e.g., probenecid), this can be referred to as refractory chronic gout.[75]

Comparison of types: 6 Yogasana

Comparison of some major forms of arthritis[76]

Osteoarthritis    Rheumatoid arthritis    Gouty arthritis

Speed of onset    Months    Weeks-months[77]    Hours for an attack[78]

Main locations:

    Weight-bearing joints (such as knees, hips, vertebral column) and hands.    Hands (proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joint) wrists, ankles, knees and hips, Great toe, ankles, knees and elbows

Inflammation    May occur, though often mild compared to inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.

Radiologic changes   

Narrowed joint space

Osteophytes

Local osteosclerosis

Subchondral cysts

Narrowed joint space

Bone erosions

“Punched out” bone erosions

Laboratory findings    None    Anemia, elevated ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibody, Crystal in joints etc. 

Infectious arthritis is another severe form of arthritis. It presents with a sudden onset of chills, fever and joint pain. The condition is caused by bacteria elsewhere in the body. Infectious arthritis must be rapidly diagnosed and treated promptly to prevent irreversible joint damage.[79]

Psoriasis can develop into psoriatic arthritis. With psoriatic arthritis, most individuals develop the skin problem first and then the arthritis. The typical features are continuous joint pains, stiffness and swelling.

The disease does recur with periods of remission but there is no cure for the disorder. A small percentage develop a severely painful and destructive form of arthritis which destroys the small joints in the hands and can lead to permanent disability and loss of hand function.[80]

Treatment: Alt. Med

Monsoon cann be fatal in Arthritis, so practice Yoga

You should take suggestions and advice from a specialist Doctor nearer to you. So far as I am concerned that there is no known cure for arthritis and rheumatic diseases.

Treatment options vary depending on the type of arthritis and include physical therapy, exercise and so orthopaedic bracing, and oral and topical medications.[2][81] Joint replacement surgery may be required to repair the air damage, restore function, or relieve pain.[2]

Physical therapy

In general, studies have shown that physical exercise of the affected joint can noticeably improve long-term pain relief. Furthermore, exercise of the arthritic joint is encouraged to maintain the health of the particular joint and the overall body of the person.[82]

With arthritis can benefit from both physical and occupational therapy. In arthritis the joints become stiff and the range of movement can be limited. Physical therapy has been shown to significantly improve function, decrease pain, and delay the need for surgical intervention in advanced cases.[83]

Exercise prescribed by a physical therapist is more effective than medications in treating osteoarthritis of the knee. Exercise often focuses on improving muscle strength, endurance and flexibility. In some cases, exercises may be designed to train balance. 

   Occupational therapy can provide assistance with activities. Assistive technology is a tool used to aid a person’s disability by reducing their physical barriers by improving the use of their damaged body part, typically after an amputation. Assistive technology devices can be customized to the patient or bought commercially.[84]

Several rheumatic surgical interventions have been incorporated into the treatment of arthritis since the 1950s. Arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee provides no additional benefit to optimised physical and medical therapy.[89]

Adaptive aids

People with hand arthritis can have trouble with simple activities of daily living tasks (ADLs), such as turning a key in a lock or opening jars, as these activities can be cumbersome and painful.

There are adaptive aids or assistive devices (ADs) available to help with these tasks,[90] but they are generally more costly than conventional products with the same function.

It is now possible to 3-D print adaptive aids, which have been released as open-source hardware to reduce patient costs.[91][92] Adaptive aids can significantly help arthritis patients and the vast majority of those with arthritis need and use them.[93]

Alternative medicine

Further research is required to determine if transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for knee osteoarthritis is effective for controlling pain.[94]

Low level laser therapy may be considered for relief of pain and stiffness associated with arthritis.[95] Evidence of benefit is tentative.[96]

Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMFT) has tentative evidence supporting improved functioning but no evidence of improved pain in osteoarthritis.[97] The FDA has not approved PEMFT for the treatment of arthritis. In Canada, PEMF devices are legally licensed by Health Canada for the treatment of pain associated with arthritic conditions.[98]

Epidemiology

Arthritis is predominantly a disease of the elderly, but children can also be affected by the disease.[99] Arthritis is more common in women than men at all ages and affects all races, ethnic groups and cultures.

In the United States a CDC survey based on data from 2013 to 2015 showed 54.4 million (22.7%) adults had self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis, and 23.7 million (43.5% of those with arthritis) had arthritis-attributable activity limitation (AAAL).

With an aging population, this number is expected to increase. Adults with comorbid conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and obesity, were seen to have a higher than average prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis (49.3%, 47.1%, and 30.6% respectively).[100]

Disability due to musculoskeletal disorders increased by 45% from 1990 to 2010. Of these, osteoarthritis is the fastest increasing major health condition.[101] Among the many reports on the increased prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions, data from Africa are lacking and underestimated.

A systematic review assessed the prevalence of arthritis in Africa and included twenty population-based and seven hospital-based studies.[102] The majority of studies, twelve, were from South Africa. Nine studies were well-conducted, eleven studies were of moderate quality, and seven studies were conducted poorly. The results of the systematic review were as follows:[citation needed]

Rheumatoid arthritis: 0.1% in Algeria (urban setting); 0.6% in Democratic Republic of Congo (urban setting); 2.5% and 0.07% in urban and rural settings in South Africa respectively; 0.3% in Egypt (rural setting), 0.4% in Lesotho (rural setting)

Osteoarthritis: 55.1% in South Africa (urban setting); ranged from 29.5 to 82.7% in South Africans aged 65 years and older

Knee osteoarthritis has the highest prevalence from all types of osteoarthritis, with 33.1% in rural South Africa

Ankylosing spondylitis: 0.1% in South Africa (rural setting)

Psoriatic arthritis: 4.4% in South Africa (urban setting)

Gout: 0.7% in South Africa (urban setting)

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 0.3% in Egypt (urban setting)

History

Evidence of osteoarthritis and potentially inflammatory arthritis has been discovered in dinosaurs.[103][104] The first known traces of human arthritis date back as far as 4500 BC. In early reports, arthritis was frequently referred to as the most common ailment of prehistoric peoples.[105]

It was noted in skeletal remains of Native Americans found in Tennessee and parts of what is now Olathe, Kansas. Evidence of arthritis has been found throughout history, from Ötzi, a mummy (c. 3000 BC) found along the border of modern Italy and Austria, to the Egyptian mummies circa 2590 BC.[106]

In 1715, William Musgrave published the second edition of his most important medical work, De arthritide symptomatica, which concerned arthritis and its effects.[107] Augustin Jacob Landré-Beauvais, a 28-year-old resident physician at Saltpêtrière Asylum in France was the first person to describe the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Though Landré-Beauvais’ classification of rheumatoid arthritis as a relative of gout was inaccurate, his dissertation encouraged others to further study the disease.[108]

6 YOGASANA CAN CURE ARTHRITI  

We have already been told that Arthritis is of various types, mainly causing swelling and tenderness of one or more joints, leading to symptoms like joint pain and stiffness. While it is known that yoga asanas offer multiple health benefits. Regularly practising yoga for arthritis relief is also recommended. Read on for more.

Best Yoga Poses To Cure Arthritis Infographic

If you’re a beginner, turn to easy poses of yoga for arthritis pain relief and you’re sure to see a positive difference. Remember to go slow and not overexert yourself!

1. Benefits Of Yoga For Arthritis

2. Types Of Yoga For Arthritis

3. Virabhadrasana Or Warrior Pose

4. Vrikshasana Or Tree Pose

5. Setubandhasana Or Bridge Pose

6. Savasana Or Corpse Pose

7. Key To Dealing With Arthritis

8.Another Set of Yoga poses for Arthritis Patients

9. FAQs:

Benefits Of Yoga For Arthritis

Yoga offers the following health benefits for patients with arthritis:

Reduces joint pain

Enhances flexibility

Improves joint function

Helps you stay active

Lowers stress and relieves tension

Promotes better sleep

Tip: Consult your doctor before starting any new exercise regimen, and turn to a qualified trainer if you’re not sure about starting yoga by yourself.

6 Yogasana can cure Arthritis

woman in pink long sleeve shirt and gray leggings doing yoga
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There are several types or styles of yoga that can benefit your health. Here are three of them that can help provide relief from arthritis symptoms:

Iyengar Yoga

Iyengar yoga for arthritis in the hips and the whole body focuses on the structural alignment of the body through the practice of yoga asanas. This style of yoga differs from others in precision, sequence, and use of props.

Hatha Yoga

This type of yoga emphasises holding poses for longer periods. Hatha yoga comprises body postures, breathing techniques, and meditation.

Restorative Yoga

Restorative yoga is practised at a slow pace. It encourages physical, mental, and emotional relaxation by focusing on stillness, long holds, and deep breathing.

The below infographic shows the different types of yoga apart from the three already explained.

6 Yogasana can cure Arthritis

Tip: Whether you’re looking for yoga for seniors with arthritis or easy yoga for knee arthritis, there are plenty of poses you can start with.

WHICH ASANAS ARE MORE EFFECTIVE?

Virabhadrasana Or Warrior Yoga poses For Arthritis

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Virabhadrasana (Virabhadrasana) is a graceful yoga for osteoarthritis posture that strengthens and tones the arms, lower back, and legs. It is extremely beneficial for those with deskbound jobs or leading a sedentary life. It increases stamina and improves balance.

a couple doing a yoga pose while looking at a laptop
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Start by standing straight with your legs at least 3-4 feet apart.

Turn your right foot out 90 degrees and left foot about 15 degrees. Keep the right heel aligned to the centre of the other foot.

Lift arms sideways to shoulder height and parallel to the ground; keep palms facing upwards.

Breathing out, slowly bend your right knee, forming a straight line with the ankle. Make sure the knee doesn’t overshoot the ankle.

Turn your head to look towards your right.

Settle into the posture and stretch your arms further. Push your pelvis down gently.

Hold the pose with determination; keep breathing as you go down.

Breathe in, come up; breathe out, and lower your hands.

Repeat the sequence for the other side.

Tip: Avoid this pose if you have heart problems or severe body pain.

Vrikshasana Or Tree Pose

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Vrikshasana Or Tree Pose For Arthritis

Vrikshasana is a basic standing posture in yoga practice. It increases blood circulation, improves balance, strengthens the lower body, builds concentration, and develops focus.

Begin by standing with your feet together. Keep back straight and chin slightly lifted.

Keep arms by the sides of your body.

Breathe gently as you feel your body weight equally distributed on both feet.

Slowly, shift your weight onto the right foot. Bend the left knee, holding it by the ankle for support. Place the sole of the left foot on the inner side of the right thigh.

Keep your back straight and focus your gaze on a spot directly in front of you.

Maintain balance by putting gentle pressure on the right thigh with your left foot. Simultaneously, keep pushing your left knee towards the outer side and point your hips forwards.

Engage your core muscles and join your palms with each other. Take 5-10 deep breaths and stay still.

Exhale, and release the left leg, going back to the starting position. Repeat on the other side.

Tip: Exercise caution while practising this pose if you have vertigo or feel dizzy. This yogasana is safe to practise during pregnancy.

Setubandhasana Or Bridge Pose For Arthritis

graceful woman performing variation of setu bandha sarvangasana yoga pose
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This yoga pose improves blood circulation, stretches the neck, spine, chest and hips, and strengthens the back. It’s good as yoga for rheumatoid arthritis.

Start by lying on your back.

Now bend your legs at the knees, keeping your feet on the floor at hip-width from each other. Ensure knees and ankles are in a straight line.

Place arms on the sides with palms facing downwards.

Inhale as you slowly lift your back off the floor. Push your chest into your chin; support your body weight with your arms, shoulders, and feet.

Remember to keep thighs parallel to the floor and to each other.

Continue to breathe slowly; exhale as you come back to the starting position.

Tip: Keep It Simple! You don’t need fancy or complex yoga poses to treat your arthritis.

Savasana Or Corpse Yoga For Arthritis

Shavasana conditions your body to improve your physical and emotional wellbeing.

Rest on the floor lying on your back.

Keep your knees bent or extended flat.

Keep your head centered and arms to the sides.

Relax all your muscles and continue breathing deeply.

Hold the pose for 5-15 minutes.

Tip: While practising Savasana, your body might feel some discomfort, but rise above the same to avoid distractions.

ANOTHER SET OF ASANAS FOR ARTHRITIS PATIENTS

One of the renowned yoga teacher of Eastern India, advised that regular practise of some selected yoga asanas can be helpful to cure arthritis within two months when it is of moderate type. In chronic cases it takes four to five months or more to cure and restore normal health.

The most remarkable aspect of Yoga treatment is that it cures the disease without the use of any medication. Moreover, it gives permanent relief from the pain of arthritis.

YOGIC TREATMENT: 6 YOGASANA CAN CURE ARTHRITIS

The arthritic or rheumatic patients have to do three things :

  1. Regular practise of selected yoga asanas ,
  2. To take proper diet, and
  3. To maintain proper hygienic care.
SET OF YOGA ASANAS: 6 YOGASANA CAN CURE ARTHRITIS

The arthritic patients are advised to practise Santulan Asana, Trikona Asana, Veera Asana, Gomukh Asana, Briksha Asana, Setubandh Asana, Siddha Asana, Nataraj Asana and Shava Asana.

6 Yogasana for Arthritis

6 Yoga Poses For Knee and Hip Arthritis

These accessible yoga positions can stabilize and support your joints and reduce pain.


side plank on forearm
Photo: pixel / 6 yogasana can cure Arthritis
warrior I
extended side angle pose
bridge pose
gate pose
tree pose

Arthritis is the most common condition affecting the musculoskeletal system, with the knee and the hip being the two most commonly affected joints. Approximately 21 percent of adults in the United States and India live with arthritis, which is characterized by the slow and sometimes progressive loss of cartilage that covers the bones of a joint.

Many people assume medication or joint surgery are the only ways to curb arthritis pain, but increasing evidence shows that targeted exercise and strength training can actually delay or, in certain circumstances, even prevent the need for surgery.

Both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Arthritis Foundation recommend exercise programs for hip and knee arthritis that include flexibility, strengthening, endurance, and balance. Yoga has all four components, making it a perfect tool for reducing arthritis pain and disability.

How yoga reduces arthritis pain

Practicing yoga strengthens the muscles around an effected joint, stabilizing it and reducing pain. People with hip and knee pain should focus on strengthening a few critical muscle groups: the knee flexors (hamstrings), knee extensors (quadriceps), hip extensors (glutes), and hip abductors (outer thighs).

Another reason strengthening these muscles is important: Say you have arthritis in your knee. The pain will likely cause you to put less weight on the joint and use it less. Over time, that lack of causes weakness in the surrounding muscles, which causes more pain.

What’s more, when you use these muscles less, their range of motion is decreased…which causes more pain, which feeds right back into the cycle.

The solution: Adding these six poses—which strengthen the muscles around the hip and knee—to your practice.

Side Plank on Forearm (Vasisthasana)

Hip abductor weakness is common in hip and knee arthritis. When the hip abductors are weak, you might shift your weight over the hip where you feel pain when you walk. That causes the pelvis to tilt downward instead of upward, which increases compressive forces on the inner knee joint. Side Plank is one of the best exercises to strengthen the gluteus medius muscle, which is the primary hip abductor. The

Come into a Forearm Plank.  Rotate the right forearm so the fingers of the right hand point toward the left hand and your right forearm is at a 45-degree angle to the front edge of the mat.

Roll to the outer edge of your right foot, stacking your left foot over the right. Press the hips up and away from the mat, engaging the core and right inner thigh up into the left leg.

Lift the left fingertips to the sky and press the right forearm down into the mat as you stack the shoulders. Gaze forward or up to the left hand. Hold for 3 to 5 breath cycles. Repeat on the other side. If this pose is too hard on your shoulders, lower the bottom knee to the mat for more support.

Warrior I (Virabhadrasana I)

In Warrior I, the quadriceps muscles are strengthened by maintaining knee stability as the hip, knee, and ankle of the front leg flex. Warrior I also strengthens the hip extensors of the back leg by controlling the degree of hip extension and abduction because of its role in centering the pelvis over the feet.

Warrior I also offers variability because you can control the length of the stance (keep feet closer together for more stability). If this pose hurts your knee, shorten your stance and back off of the deep knee bend of the front leg.

Starting in Downward-Facing Dog Pose, step the left foot forward between the hands so that it is placed next to the left thumb. Spin the right heel down approximately to a 45-degree angle and spin the outer edge of the right foot down so the entire plantar aspect of the foot grounds down.

With your left leg bent and thigh parallel to the floor, inhale your arms up to the sky, hands facing each other, fingers pointing up. The back leg remains straight and strong as you anchor the foot to square the hips forward. Lift the lower abdomen up and in as you lengthen the tailbone down.

Draw the shoulders down the back, and gaze forward or slightly up between your hands. Hold for 5 breath cycles. To exit, bring the hands down in a swan dive to frame the foot, and return to Downward-Facing Dog. Repeat on the right side.

Extended Side Angle Pose (Utthita Parsvakonasana)

Hamstring strengthening is an important principle in improving muscle strength and decreasing pain in people with hip arthritis. Extended Side Angle places the front hip into abduction and external rotation, allowing for increased activation of the hamstrings.

This change in the centre of gravity, when compared to Warrior I, minimises the activation of the hip adductor muscles and offers more potential for strength gains in the posterior leg muscles. Isometrically pull the front knee towards the trunk to activate the hamstrings.

Start in Warrior II Pose, with the left foot forward. Place the left forearm onto the left thigh, or the left hand to the floor or on a block outside your foot. Extend the right arm over the right ear to feel the extension in your right side body. The palm faces down to the ground with the fingers extending out in front of you.

Extend both sides of the waist to reach out and over the front thigh. Engage the abdomen to protect the spine and side. Your gaze can extend towards your right hand, to the ground, or straight forward, depending on which is most comfortable for your neck.

Hold for 5 breath cycles. To exit the pose, turn the torso to the mat to frame the left foot with your hands, and step back to Downward-Facing Dog Pose before switching sides.

Bridge Pose (Setu Bandha Sarvangasana)

Bridge is an excellent way to strengthen the hip extensors in a moderate weight-bearing position without overextending the joint. Bridge also strengthens the knee flexors and core and stretches the hip flexor. Hip strength is important in individuals with knee arthritis, because it decreases the workload on the quadriceps and places less force on the hip.

Start by lying on your back with your knees bent, feet flat on the floor, and arms alongside your body with hands facing down. Roll your shoulders underneath you as you begin to lift your hips. Press your feet and shoulders into the mat as you lift your hips. As you rise, walk the feet closer to your buttocks and scoot your shoulders into midline to further elevate the hips and lengthen the tailbone.

Keep your knees parallel as you engage the inner thighs. Interlace the fingers on the mat, extend the palms on the floor next to you or hold on to a strap with the hands. Keep your neck neutral by relaxing your chin away from your chest to preserve the natural curve of your cervical spine.

Your shoulders, feet, and back of the head support your lift comfortably on the mat because you are using the muscles of your buttocks and back to lengthen your hips. Hold for 5 to 10 breath cycles. To exit the pose, release the hands if interlaced and slowly roll down your spine.

Gate Pose (Parighasana)

Gate activates the hip adductors in the kneeling leg, which keeps the hip in an internally rotated position. To engage the hip adductors, isometrically contract the kneeling leg towards the midline. This pose also strengthens of the hip abductors of the kneeling leg and the knee extensors of the extended leg.

Start in a standing kneel (on your knees and shins, but hips lifted). You can place a folded blanket under the knees for cushioning and comfort. Step your right leg out to the side to straighten the knee, with the right toes pointed forward. Make sure your hips are aligned over the knees. Inhale the arms up to the sky and relax your right hand to draw down your right leg towards the ankle, stretching through the left side of the trunk. Continue pressing the hips forward, so as not to let the buttocks bow out.

Now feel the stretch on the right inner thigh as you ground through the right foot. Bend farther into the side bend, as much as is comfortable but at the same time challenging. Hold for 5 to 10 breath cycles. To exit the pose, reach both arms back up to the sky and step the right knee next to the left. Switch sides.

Tree Pose (Vrksasana)

Tree pose helps with knee extension mobility, knee extensor strengthening, hip abductor strengthening. Ultimately, increased core stability. Tree requires significant muscle activation of the knee extensors and knee flexors to keep the knee of the standing leg in neutral extension.

Besides, it activates the hip abductors to keep the pelvis level. The lifted leg strengthens the hip flexors and hip external rotators of the bent leg to maintain the same-side hip in line with the pelvis. With the knee flexors bending the knee, it also provides excellent hip-opening because it stretches the internal rotators.

Hip muscle weakness is quite common in people with hip arthritis, so modifications will likely need to be made initially. Be mindful in Tree: It can place compressive loads on the standing knee while the knee extensors in the straightened knee are strongly contracted.

Start in Mountain Pose (Tadasana), with a firm footing on the ground and your gaze focused on an object in front of you. Shift all of your weight to your left leg and bend your right knee up into your chest, catching hold of the knee with your hands. Hold your right ankle with your right hand and fold the foot into your inner thigh. Press the left thigh back into your right foot so the foot does not overpower the standing leg or cause it to bow out. Reach your arms overhead or keep the hands to prayer at the heart centre.

Lengthen through your tailbone and engage the abdomen as you draw the shoulder blades down the back and open the heart space. Hold for 5 to 10 breath cycles. To exit the pose, step your right foot down and shake it out. Repeat on the opposite side.



photograph of flexible women doing yoga
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flexible woman doing vrikshasana posture
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Key Points To Deal with Arthritis

Managing your weight and getting enough exercise are key ways to deal with arthritis. Physical exercise such as yoga, when done regularly, will not only help you maintain your weight but also keep your joints and entire body physically fit.

Other tips to manage arthritis symptoms include:

Meditation

Acupuncture

Hot and cold therapy

Eating a healthy diet

Regular massage therapy

All-natural supplements or medication for pain management

Tip: Change in temperature or weather, overdoing exercise, and eating trigger foods can flare up arthritis, so avoid what you can.

WHY ARTHRITIS PATIENTS FEEL MORE PAIN DURING MONSOON

Why Do Arthritis Patients Feel More Pain During Monsoon? 

Many feel more pain in cold, rainy weather than in warm, and dry weather. 

Many feel more pain in cold, rainy weather than in warm, and dry weather. 

There is a significant number of arthritis patients who say that their pain is affected by the weather.

Monsoon may signal respite from the sweltering heat, but for some patients with arthritis, it means the return of joint pains.

        Arthritis is a medical condition in which the patient suffers from inflammation of the joints. The symptoms of arthritis include stiffness and joint pain. There is a significant number of arthritis patients who say that their pain is affected by the weather. They feel more pain in cold, rainy weather than in warm, and dry weather.

Patients with arthritis feel worsening symptoms before and during rainy days. A drop in atmospheric pressure often precedes cold, rainy weather and this may cause already inflamed tissue to expand. It leads to increased pain.

Speaking to a rheumatologist at the Health World Hospital and Clinic, says weather does not cause arthritis or make it worse, but it can temporarily cause it to hurt more.

So how can you manage the increase in pain during the monsoon season? Let us take a look at some solutions:

Acupuncture 

According to Arthritis.org this treatment derived from Chinese ancient medicine is helpful for osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, low back pain, neck and shoulder pain, bursitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome. This treatment involves inserting thin, small needles through the skin at specific acupoints on the body. It is designed to stimulate nerves, muscles and connective tissue, improve blood flow and activate the body’s natural painkillers.

Acupressure: 

Acupressure is also the easiest and most helpful way to beat arthritis with your hands. It’s a self-help treatment to be able to cure its severe pain. Acupressure helps to balance prana and maintain the water, fire and air elements which are the most important elements that control our body and mind.

Weight Loss:

plus size woman measuring hips in gym
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Taking note of your weight and diet will also help relieve the arthritis pain that can increase during monsoons. Maintaining a healthy weight by combining a balanced diet with regular physical activity will maintain your condition. Make sure you include fruits, vegetables, lean protein, low-fat dairy and whole grains in your diet. Read also:6 Week’s Yoga Chart to Reduce Obesity

Tai Chi

a man in white dress shirt in squat position with clenched fists
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Arthritis.org recommends following this Chinese practice that includes gentle flowing movements, deep breathing and meditation. Tai Chi has been shown to not only reduce joint pain, but also improve range of motion and function.

Under proper medical consultation, massage can also work wonders for your condition. However, it should be noted that massage may not be as helpful during a very active flare when joints are especially tender and sensitive.

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Natural foods For Conquering The Pain Of Arthritis

  • Natural foods For Conquering The Pain Of Arthritis
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Best foods for Combating the Pain of Arthritis

You can beat the pain of Arthritis with some thoughts and planning. No doubt it’s easy to make selected nutrient-dense foods of your daily diet to combating your severe pain of Arthritis . With choices from virtually every food group, you’ll soon be well on your way to arming yourself to battle the pain of arthritis and begin to manage it from the inside out.

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Nuts, various types of whole grains, eggs, cheese are among the richest sources of healthy fats, making it an ideal source of omega-3 fatty acids. In addition, these foods contain calcium, vitamin D, and folate. Besides helping with arthritis, eating nuts, grains and some fruits may protect the cardiovascular system by preventing blood clots, repairing artery damage, raising levels of good cholesterol, and lowering blood pressure.

selective focus photo of bunch of bananas on black surface
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One of nature’s ‘perfect foods,’ bananas are perhaps best known for packing potassium, but they’re also good sources of arthritis-fighting vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin C. They’re easy for your body to digest, and since they’re a great source of soluble fibre, they are an important player in your weight loss efforts, because you feel full after eating one without consuming a large number of calories.

If it’s found that you need vitamin C but aren’t a big fan of citrus fruits, reach for green pepper. A single green pepper contains 176 per cent of your daily needs for vitamin C — and colourful red and yellow varieties have more than double that amount. That makes them richer in C than citrus fruits, but sweet peppers are also excellent sources of vitamin B6 and folate.

appetizing fresh and sweet strawberries on table
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Vitamin D is a tough one to come by in foods, but shrimp fills that bill, since they have about 30 percent of the daily recommended amount in about three ounces – much more than a cup of milk. Shrimp also contains omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin C, along with other nutrients essential for general health, including iron and vitamin B12.

Besides green keeper and Vitamin D, Fresh cheese in all its variety is an excellent source of calcium for bones, and protein for muscles and other joint-supporting tissues. Cheese can be easily sliced to put on a cracker or a sandwich, grated into your favorite recipe, or eaten alongside an apple or pear for a fresh, quick snack.

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Green tea :

Green tea contains hundreds of powerful antioxidant chemicals called polyphenols and have been cited for helping prevent problems ranging from cancer to heart disease. But studies also suggest green tea may help prevent or ease symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.

What Not to Eat With Gout

Many foods can raise the level of uric acid in the blood. Chief among these are beer, beef, pork, shellfish and foods or beverages containing high-fructose corn syrup.

High-fructose corn syrup is found in sodas and juices, certain cereals and pastries, ice cream and candy and other processed foods. In some people with gout, eating these foods can trigger flares.

“While certain foods have been known to trigger gout flares there is no regimented ‘gout diet,'” Mandell says. “Doctors advise patients to avoid drinking beer and extremely high purine foods. Low-fat dairy products can be beneficial in reducing urea levels slightly and reducing flares.

At present, the major dietary message to patients includes limiting beer and mineral spirits and focusing on a heart-healthy, common sense, calorie-limited diet.”

Examples of high-purine foods include:

  • Certain animal proteins such as fish (like sardines, anchovies, herring, codfish, scallops, trout and haddock), shellfish, pork, chicken, turkey, mutton, organ meats, bacon, venison and veal.
  • Alcohol, beer (including non-alcoholic).
  • Certain vegetables such as cauliflower, green peas, dried beans, mushrooms and asparagus.
  • Processed and sugary foods such as what is found in a bakery, sodas, certain fruit juices, candy, and ice cream.

READ: Food and Drink to Avoid – or at Least Limit – With Gout ]

What to Eat With Gout

Food choices are important as they can influence gout flares, but there is no substitute for the right medication and coming up with a treatment plan with your rheumatologist.

When exploring what dietary choices are right for you, keep in mind that certain foods do not affect all people in the same manner, and paying close attention to how some foods impact any gout flares is critical for long-term success.

When managing food and gout, become familiar with what are high-purine foods and low-purine foods to help guide your choices.

Examples of low-purine foods include:

  • Coffee and tea.
  • Whole-grain bread, cereals and pasta.
  • Limited animal proteins such as low-fat milk, yoghurt and cheese; eggs.
  • For most fruits and vegetables, be mindful of the sugar content in fruit and limit it accordingly.

Tart cherry juice and cherries in general have a reputation as being helpful in managing uric acid levels. Some sufferers recommend adding certain spices and herbs to food that may help decrease inflammation.

Mainly these include ginger, turmeric, apple cider vinegar or dandelion. Before trying anything in large doses, double-check with your doctor to be sure it isn’t going to interact with any medications you are taking.

Mainstream Diets for Gout/ Monsoon can be fatal in arthritis

There are a number of different diet plans that can help limit uric acid production and increase its elimination. Diet alone, in most patients, is not likely to lower the uric acid concentration in the blood enough to treat gout without medication. However, it may aid in decreasing the number of flares and limit the severity.

Plant-based diets with or without limited animal proteins (think the low-purine kind) are easy to find these days. “Diets like vegan, vegetarian and Mediterranean have been shown to be helpful for those with gout. The DASH diet could also be another option.

So within those dietary patterns, you will still need to pay attention to foods that are high in purines and avoid or limit them,” says Ginger Hultin, a nutrition expert advisor with the Arthritis Foundation and author of “Anti-Inflammatory Diet Meal Prep.”

The Mediterranean diet typically encourages nutrient-dense fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, herbs, spices, nuts, seeds and heart-healthy fats as found in the traditional foods eaten in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea.

It discourages added sugars, refined grains, sugar-sweetened drinks, processed meats and other highly processed foods. Therefore, this eating plan has been shown to have many health benefits ranging from heart health to brain health. It is recommended frequently for those looking to lose weight and protect themselves from diseases like gout.

The DASH diet, which stands for dietary approaches to stop hypertension, was designed for those looking to support their heart health by concentrating first on foods rich in potassium, calcium, magnesium, fibre and protein. These ar fruits and vegetables, whole grains, fish, beans, nuts, low-fat dairy and poultry.

So, It limits foods high in added sugars, saturated fats and sodium. As with the Mediterranean diet, many like it because it’s both flexible and balanced with foods easily found in a supermarket. This diet emphasises portion size and provides nutritional goals both daily and weekly.

However, a different dietary approach is to look for one-on-one support. “Think about getting a referral to a registered dietitian or nutritionist who can help personalise your diet. Many people go to extremes when they first get diagnosed, but that can be unrealistic to stick to over the long term,” Hultin says.

Drink Lots of Water/ Monsoon can be fatal in Arthritis

Adequate hydration is a simple yet critical necessity for your body to process uric acid effectively and prevent unnecessary flares. A report from the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine set general recommendations for adequate daily fluid intake as:

  • About 15.5 cups (3.7 litres) of fluids a day for men.
  • About 11.5 cups (2.7 litres) of fluids a day for women.

These recommendations cover fluids from water, other beverages and food. “It is important to be mindful of your daily fluid intake. Drinking enough water with a gout diagnosis is one way of keeping your body healthy,” Hultin says.

Meditation for Arthritis: Q & A

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Meditation for Arthritis: Q & A / 6 yoga asana can cure Arthritis

Q. Have scientific studies of yoga been done in arthritis patients?

A. Yes, and the results of such studies show that those with arthritis saw improvement in overall physical health, balance, and flexibility with the help of yoga.

Q. Can yoga worsen arthritis?

A. Arthritis can flare up with excessive use of joints, so make sure you take it slow and steady when practising yoga. Perform the yoga asanas correctly, as trauma to any joint can also aggravate arthritis symptoms.8

Q. Is yoga or Pilates better for arthritis?

A. Both forms of exercise can help alleviate arthritis symptoms. While yoga boosts the flexibility of the muscles around the joints, Pilates helps strengthen bones and joints.

Q. How often should you do yoga? Monsoon can be fatal in Arthritis

A. As a beginner, start with 2-3 classes a week and build up from there to daily practice.

For more amazing content visit us on Amazon Kindle. Read these books: A guide to managing anxiety, Combating to Fat (1st and 2nd part), The Light of the Universe

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Disclaimers: I’m a yoga – expert and enthusiast. So don’t take this article as Doctor’s advice. If you are a chronic patient, you take advice of medical practitioners.

Are You Obese? And Don’t Know How to be Controlled

         

Dr.Sushil Rudra Ph.D

 Are you obese and don’t know how to be controlled? You are in the right place. You certainly know that obesity is not a symptom of good health. Mostly the new generation, women and middle-aged people are the victims of these  health problems.

             Obesity is now a universal  problem. How to lose belly fat easily? 

Belly fat is a common weight loss goal. It can act very adversely on our daily lives. Most of the time we can’t get our favourite dress or trousers in proportional sizes. And we settle for those mediocre-looking ones from clothing stores. Too much belly fat can affect your health in a way that other fat doesn’t.

TYPES OF CONTENTS

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  • Introduction 
  • What is Belly fat 
  • Classification of Childhood Obesity 
  • Psychological Impact 
  • Obesity in Adolescents
  • Impact on Health
  • What are the causes of Obesity
  • Body Growth Pattern
  • Epidemiology of Child obesity 
  • Research 
  • Methods to lose belly fat 
  • More Ways to lose belly 
  • What don’t do 
  • Maintain another Set of Rules 
  • Should not be done 
  • Keep it minds some rules 
  • Follow these rules more
  • Conclusion 

Sometimes you may find it hard to do activities that you used to do. So we often get depressed or lose confidence. Fortunately, there are many methods to get back on track and lose that stubborn belly fat. Losing this fat can have significant benefits for your health and well-being.

What is belly fat?

Belly fat or pot belly is a cumulation of body fat to the abdominal area. If you gain too much weight, your body starts to store your fat in unusual places. Excessive fat deposit around the stomach and abdomen is termed belly fat.

It is also associated with health conditions like type two diabetes and heart disease. As losing this fat can promote significant changes in one’s mental and physical well-being. Certain weight loss techniques or strategies can target the belly fat area more specifically.

Due to the rising prevalence of obesity in children and its many adverse health effects it is being recognized as a serious public health concern.[1]        

                                                       The term ‘overweight’ rather than ‘obese’ is often used. While discussing childhood obesity, as it is less stigmatizing, although the term ‘overweight’ can also refer to a different BMI category.[2] 

           The prevalence of childhood obesity is known to differ by sex and gender.[3] What is childhood obesity?  Children with varying degrees of body fat Specialty Endocrinology, pediatrics, bariatrics.

Classification of childhood obesity:

   How to classify? BMI for age percentiles for boys 2 to 20 years of age. BMI for age percentiles for girls 2 to 20 years of age. Body mass index (BMI) is acceptable for determining obesity for children two years of age and older.[4] 

          It is determined by the ratio of weight to height.[5] The normal range for BMI in children vary with age and sex. While a BMI above the 85th percentile is defined as overweight. A BMI greater than or equal to the 95th percentile. It is defined as obesity by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

            It has published tables for determining this in children.[6] The US Preventive Service Task Force reported that not all children with a high BMI need to lose weight though. High BMI can identify a possible weight problem, but does not differentiate between fat or lean tissue.[7]

                   On the other hand, BMI may mistakenly rule out some children who do have excess adipose tissue. It is therefore beneficial to supplement the reliability of a BMI diagnosis with additional screening tools such as adipose tissue or skin fold measurements.[8]

    Effects on health And  Psychological Impact:  

Social stigma of obesity: 

 The first problem in obese children are usually emotional or psychological.[9] Obese children often experience bullying by their peers.[10][11] Some are harassed or discriminated against by their own family.[11] 

     As a result, this  stereotypes abound and may lead to low self-esteem and depression.[12] Physical Childhood obesity however can also lead to life-threatening conditions including diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, sleep problems, cancer, and other disorders.[13][14] 

         Some of the other disorders would include liver disease, early puberty or menarche, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, skin infections, and asthma and other respiratory problems.[15] 

Obesity In Adolescents:

The early physical effects of obesity in adolescence include, almost all of the child’s organs being affected, gallstones, hepatitis, sleep apnoea and increased intracranial pressure.[16] Overweight children are also more likely to grow up to be overweight adults.[14]

            Obesity during adolescence has been found to increase mortality rates during adulthood.[17] A 2008 study has found that children who are obese have carotid arteries which have prematurely aged by as much as thirty years as well as abnormal levels of cholesterol.[18] 

  Impact on Health  : 

   Endocrine Impaired, glucose tolerance, Diabetes mellitus, Metabolic syndrome, Hyperandrogenism, Effects on growth and puberty Nulliparity and nulligravidity[19] Cardiovascular Hypertension, Hyperlipidemia , Increased risk of coronary heart disease as an adult .

Besides, Gastrointestinal  Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Cholelithiasis , Respiratory Obstructive sleep apnea,  Obesity hyperventilation, syndrome Musculoskeletal Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), Blount disease, Neurological Idiopathic intracranial hypertension,  Psychosocial Distorted peer relationships,  Poor self-esteem [20],  Anxiety ,Depression,  Skin Furunculosis Intertrigo [21]etc. 

   Long-term effects: 

             Children who are obese are likely to be obese as adults. Thus, they are more at risk for adult health problems such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, several types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

                One study showed that children who became obese as early as age 2 were more likely to be obese as adults.[22] According to an article in The New York Times all of these health effects are contributing to a shorter lifespan of five years for these obese children. 

             It is the first time in two centuries that the current generation of children in America may have a shorter lifespan than their parents.[23]

What are the Causes: 

 Childhood obesity can be brought on by a range of factors which often act in combination.[24][25][26][27][28] “Obesogenic environment” is the medical term set aside for this mixture of elements.[29] The greatest risk factor for child obesity is the obesity of both parents. This may be reflected by the family’s environment and genetics.[30] 

Others Reasons:

           Other reasons may also be due to psychological factors and the child’s body type. A 2010 review stated that childhood obesity likely is the result of the interaction of natural selection favouring those with more parsimonious energy metabolism. Moreover, today’s consumerist society with easy access to energy dense cheap foods and less energy requirements in daily life.[31] 

       Factors include the increase in use of technology, increase in snacks and portion size of meals, and the decrease in the physical activity of children. 

                 A study found kids that use electronic devices 3 or more hours a day had between a 17- 44% increased risk of being overweight, or a 10- 61% increased risk of obese (Cespedes 2011).

       Childhood obesity is common among children from low-income, African American and Hispanic communities. This is mainly because minority children spend less time playing outside the house and staying active.

        Some contributors to childhood obesity are that parents would rather have their children stay inside the home because they fear that gang, drug violence, and other dangers might harm them.[32]

      Genetics and Childhood obesity:

Childhood obesity  is often the result of an interplay between many genetic and environmental factors. Polymorphisms in various genes controlling appetite and metabolism predispose individuals to obesity when sufficient calories are present. 

          Over 200 genes affect weight by determining activity level, food preferences, body type, and metabolism.[33] 

        Having two copies of the allele called FTO increases the likelihood of both obesity and diabetes.[34] As such, obesity is a major feature of a number of rare genetic conditions that are often present in childhood. 

      One study found that 80% of the offspring of two obese parents were obese in contrast to less than 10% of the offspring of two parents who were of normal weight.[1][37] The percentage of obesity that can be attributed to genetics varies from 6% to 85% depending on the population examined.[38]

        Family practices In the recent decades: 

 Family practices have significantly changed, and several of these practices greatly contribute to childhood obesity:[5] With a decreasing number of mothers who breast-feed, more infants become obese children as they grow up and are reared on infant formula instead.[39] 

              Less children go outside and engage in active play as technology, such as television and video games, keep children indoors. Rather than walking or biking to a bus-stop or directly to school, more school-age children are driven to school by their parents, reducing physical activity. 

         As family sizes decrease, the children’s pester power, their ability to force adults to do what they want, increases. This ability enables them to have easier access to calorie-packed foods, such as candy and soda drinks. 

          The social context around family meal-time plays a role in rates of childhood obesity:  Social policies : 

                     We came to know from newspapers that First Lady Michelle Obama with students in Virginia sampled healthy meals being introduced by the United States Department of Agriculture. Different communities and nations have adopted varying social practices and policies. They are either beneficial or detrimental to children’s physical health. 

These social factors include:[5] 

     These are the quality of school lunches, the emphasis of schools on physical activity, access to vending machines and fast-food restaurants, the prevalence of and access to parks, bike paths, and sidewalks government subsidies for corn oil and sugar advertising of fast-food restaurants. Furthermore, candy prices of healthy and unhealthy foods access etc. So it should be fresh, healthy, and affordable food[40].

    Key Responsible is  Advertising :

Moreover, advertising of unhealthy foods correlates with childhood obesity rates.[5] In some nations, advertising of candy, cereal, and fast-food restaurants is illegal or limited on children’s television channels.[41] Although the media defends itself by blaming the parents for yielding to their children’s demands for unhealthy foods.[5] 

           Socioeconomic status:

                  It is much more common for young people who come from a racial or ethnic minority, or for those who have a lower socioeconomic status, to be overweight and to engage in less healthy behaviors and sedentary activities.[42] 

Prevention: Read also:6 Week’s Yoga Chart to Reduce Obesity

Schools play a large role in preventing childhood obesity by providing a safe and supporting environment with policies and practices that support healthy behaviors.[43] At home, parents can help prevent their children from becoming overweight by changing the way the family eats and exercises together.

          So the best way children learn is by example. Therefore, parents should lead by example by living a healthy lifestyle.[44] Screening for obesity is recommended in those over the age of six.[45] Both physical activity and diet can help to reduce the risk of obesity in children from 0 to 5 years old. Meanwhile, exclusive physical activity can reduce the risk of obesity for children aged from 6 to 12 years old, and adolescents aged from 13 to 18 years old.[46] 

                            The implementation of strategies to improve childcare services such as preschools, nurseries, daycare, and kindergarten on healthy eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention shows little effect on a child’s diet, physical activity, and weight status.[47] 

WHY DO WE NEED TO PRACTICE YOGA?

Dr Sushil Rudra 

21.06.2022

INTRODUCTION: WHY DO WE NEED TO PRACTICE YOGA?

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Why do we need to Yoga? Because the modern lifestyle is very hectic and stressful. From Morning to Night we are passing through a pact schedule. Work, work and work. We have no time to get rest, not to look after our body and mind. This stressful life ultimately calls an acute impact on our physical and mental health. 

    We become fatigued and sometimes we have to face ailments both physically and mentally. So to prevent it, we need to practice some exercises and yogas. Only 30 minutes of practice yoga might repair all our stress and weaknesses. 

WHY YOGA? MEANING OF IT :

The word “Yoga” means to unite and it does just that with the mind, body and soul. A union with the universe can be attained as well along with a proper understanding and appreciation of the world one lives in. 

                As Lord Krishna himself explains to Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita, “Yoga is our intimate connection with the whole universe, with eternal realms even beyond the manifested universe, and with our own being’s endless capacity to love.”

     In a hectic sleep-deprived world, Yoga is not just a practice, it is a lifestyle. Several countries have adopted and lived by it ever since. Apart from bringing about detoxification, Yoga also incorporates several health benefits, something the body of the modern human craves.

            In the chaos of establishing a loving family and attaining a well-to-do job, one barely has the time to lead a well-nourished lifestyle. A thirty-minute Yoga session is both enriching and fulfilling. The health benefits are plentiful. 

              Yoga is also beneficial in fighting several diseases. The Pranayama exercises strive to cure asthma, several Yoga Asanas can help to contain cholesterol levels, induce good posture and elevate the body’s immunity. 

Yoga is now a worldwide phenomenon and is widely practised in the modern world for its far-reaching properties. Yoga is an essential part of life for many who adore doing the Asanas and is being continuously adopted by many more.

photo of monumental sculpture
Photo: Pexels.com/Why do we need to practice yoga?

THE DOWN: ADI GURU 

The practise of Yoga is believed to have started with the very dawn of civilization. The science of yoga has its origin thousands of years ago, long before the first religions or belief systems were born. In the yogic lore, Shiva is seen as the first yogi or Adiyogi, and the first Guru or Adi Guru.

Several thousand years ago, on the banks of the lake Kantisarovar in the Himalayas, Adiyogi poured his profound knowledge into the legendary Saptarishis or “seven sages”. 

      The sages carried this powerful yogic science to different parts of the world, including Asia, the Middle East, Northern Africa and South America. Interestingly, modern scholars have noted and marvelled at the close parallels found between ancient cultures across the globe. 

a man in white long sleeves doing yoga
Photo by Ajan Yogi on Pexels.com

INDIA IS THE MOTHER’S WOMB 

           However, it was in India that the yogic system found its fullest expression. Agastya, the Saptarishi who travelled across the Indian subcontinent, crafted this culture around a core Yogic way of life.

 It’s ancient India where the first yoga was started. Because several seals and fossil remains of the Indus Saraswati valley civilization with Yogic motives and figures performing yoga indicate the presence of Yoga in India.

       The Number of seals and fossil remains of the Indus Saraswati valley civilization with Yogic motives and figures performing Yoga Sadhana suggest the presence of Yoga in ancient India. 

                   The phallic symbols and seals of idols of the Mother Goddess are suggestive of Tantra Yoga. The presence of Yoga is available in folk traditions, Indus valley civilization, Vedic and Upanishadic heritage, Buddhist and Jain traditions, Darshanas, epics of Mahabharat and Ramayana, theistic traditions of Shaivas, Vaishnavas, and Tantric traditions.

                 In addition, there was a primordial or pure Yoga which has been manifested in mystical traditions of South Asia. This was the time when Yoga was being practised under the direct guidance of the Guru and its spiritual value was given special importance.

woman in white jacket praying
Photo by Tima Miroshnichenko on Pexels.com

YOGA IS A PART OF WORSHIP 

                   It was a part of Upasana and yoga sadhana was inbuilt into their rituals. Sun was given the highest importance during the Vedic period. The practice of ‘Surya namaskar may have been invented later due to this influence. 

             Pranayama was a part of daily ritual and offered the oblation. Though Yoga was being practised in the pre-Vedic period, the great Sage Maharshi Patanjali systematized and codified the then-existing practices of Yoga, its meaning and its related knowledge through his Yoga Sutras. 

After Patanjali, many Sages and Yoga Masters contributed greatly to the preservation and development of the field through their well-documented practices and literature.

pink petals on girl s hands
Photo by Yan Krukov on Pexels.com

HISTORICAL EVIDENCE:

     Historical pieces of evidence of the existence of Yoga were seen in the pre-Vedic period (2700 B.C.), and thereafter till Patanjali’s period. The main sources, from which we get the information about Yoga practices and the related literature during this period, are available in Vedas (4), Upanishads(108), Smritis, teachings of Buddhism, Jainism, Panini, Epics (2), Puranas (18) etc.

         Tentatively, the period between 500 BC – 800 A.D. is considered the Classical period which is also considered the most fertile and prominent period in the history and development of Yoga. 

                      During this period, commentaries of Vyasa on Yoga Sutras and Bhagavadgita etc. came into existence. This period can be mainly dedicated to two great religious teachers of India –Mahavir and Buddha. 

THE CONCEPT OF FIVE VOWS : WHY DO WE NEED TO PRACTICE YOGA?

                       The concept of Five great vows – Pancha mahavrata- by Mahavir and Ashta Magga or eightfold path by Buddha – can be well considered as early nature of Yoga sadhana. We find its more explicit explanation in Bhagavadgita which has elaborately presented the concept of Gyan yoga, Bhakti yoga and Karma Yoga. 

             These three types of yoga are still the highest example of human wisdom and even today people find peace by following the methods shown in the Gita. 

VARIOUS YOGA GURUS  

        Patanjali’s yoga sutra besides containing various aspects of yoga is mainly identified with eight fold path of Yoga. The very important commentary on the Yoga sutra by Vyasa was also written. 

              During this very period, the aspect of the mind was given importance and it was brought out through Yoga sadhana, Mind and body both can be brought under control to experience equanimity.

          The period between 800 A.D. – 1700 A.D. has been recognized as the Post Classical period wherein the teachings of great Acharyatrayas-Adi Shankracharya, Ramanujacharya, and Madhavacharya-were prominent during this period. 

            The teachings of Suradasa, Tulasidasa, Purandardasa, and Mirabai were the great contributors during this period. The Natha Yogis of Hathayoga Tradition like Matsyendaranatha, Gorkshanatha, Cauranginatha, Swatmaram Suri, Gheranda, and Shrinivasa Bhatt are some of the great personalities who popularized the Hatha Yoga practices during this period.

       The period between 1700 – 1900 A.D. is considered the Modern period in which the great Yogacharyas- Ramana Maharshi, Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Paramhansa Yogananda, Vivekananda etc. have contributed to the development of Raja Yoga.

                                                               This was the period when Vedanta, Bhakti yoga, Nathayoga or Hatha-yoga flourished. The Shadanga-yoga of Gorakshashatakam, Chaturanga-yoga of Hathayogapradipika, and Saptanga-yoga of Gheranda Samhita were the main tenents of Hatha-yoga.

COTEMPORARY GURUS 

Now in contemporary times, everybody has a conviction about yoga practices towards the preservation, maintenance and promotion of health. 

           Yoga has spread all over the world through the teachings of great personalities like Swami Shivananda, Shri T.Krishnamacharya, Swami Kuvalayananda, Shri Yogendra, and Swami Rama, Sri Aurobindo, Maharshi Mahesh Yogi, Acharya Rajanish, Pattabhijois, BKS. Iyengar, Swami Satyananda Sarasvati and the like.

B.K.S. Iyengar was the founder of the style of yoga known as “Iyengar Yoga” and was considered one of the foremost yoga teachers in the world. 

CONCEPTION ON YOGA 

For many, the practice of yoga is restricted to Hatha Yoga and Asanas (postures). However, among the Yoga Sutras, just three sutras are dedicated to asanas.

                  fundamentally, hatha yoga is a preparatory process so that the body can sustain higher levels of energy. The process begins with the body, then the breath, the mind, and the inner self.

Yoga is also commonly understood as a therapy or exercise system for health and fitness. While physical and mental health is natural consequences of yoga, the goal of yoga is more far-reaching.

       TRUE MEANING OF YOGA

                                                   “Yoga is about harmonizing oneself with the universe. It is the technology of aligning individual geometry with the cosmic, to achieve the highest level of perception and harmony.”

Yoga does not adhere to any particular religion, belief system or community; it has always been approached as a technology for inner wellbeing. Anyone who practices yoga with involvement can reap its benefits, irrespective of one’s faith, ethnicity or culture.

 Traditional Schools of Yoga :

These different Philosophies, Traditions, lineages and Guru-shishya paramparas of Yoga lead to the emergence of different Traditional Schools of Yoga e.g. Jnana-yoga, Bhakti-yoga, Karma-yoga, Dhyana-yoga, Patanjala-yoga, Kundalini-yoga, Hatha-yoga, Mantra-yoga, Laya-yoga, Raja-yoga, Jain-yoga, Bouddha-yoga etc. Each school has its own principles and practices leading to the ultimate aim and objectives of Yoga.

Yogic Practices for Health and Wellness:6 Week’s Yoga Chart to Reduce Obesity

           The widely practised Yoga Sadhanas (Practices) are: Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana (Meditation), Samadhi /Samyama, Bandhas & Mudras, Shat-karmas, Yukta-ahara, Yukta karma, Mantra japa, etc.

               Yama’s are restraints and Niyama’s are observances. These are considered to be pre-requisite for the Yoga Sadhanas (Practices). Asanas, capable of bringing about stability of body and mind ‘ kuryat-tad-asanam-sthairyam…’, consists in adopting various body (psycho-physical) patterns, giving the ability to maintain a body position (a stable awareness of one’s structural existence) for a considerable length and period as well.

a man and a woman doing yoga
Photo: Pixel/ Why do we need to practice yoga?

Different postures of Pranayama:

                                           Pranayama consists in developing awareness of one’s breathing followed by willful regulation of respiration as the functional or vital basis of one’s existence. It helps in developing awareness of one’s mind and helps to establish control over the mind. 

           In the initial stages, this is done by developing awareness of the ‘flow of in-breath and out-breath (svasa-prasvasa) through nostrils, mouth and other body openings, its internal and external pathways and destinations. 

                                Later, this phenomenon is modified, through regulated, controlled and monitored inhalation (svasa) leading to the awareness of the body space/s getting filled (puraka), the space/s remaining in a filled state (kumbhaka) and it’s getting emptied (rechaka) during regulated, controlled and monitored exhalation (prasvasa).

Pratyahara indicates dissociation of one’s consciousness (withdrawal) from the sense organs which helps one to remain connected with the external objects. Dharana indicates broadPurushafield of attention (inside the body and mind) which is usually understood as concentration. 

                                                 Dhyana (Meditation) is contemplation (focussed attention inside the body and mind) and Samadhi – integration.

woman squatting on ground while raising both hands
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   PATANJALI YOGA SUTRA 

            The Yoga Sutras of Patañjali is a collection of Sanskrit sutras (aphorisms) on the theory and practice of yoga – 195 sutras (according to Vyāsa and Krishnamacharya) and 196 sutras (according to other scholars including BKS Iyengar). 

             The Yoga Sutras were compiled in the early centuries CE, by the sage Patanjali in India. He synthesized and organized knowledge about yoga from much older traditions.[1][2][3]

Some pages from a historic Yogasutra manuscript (Sanskrit, Devanagari). The verses are highlighted and are embedded inside the bhasya (commentary).

The Yoga Sutras are best known for their reference to ashtanga. These are eight elements of practice culminating in samadhi.

The concentration of the mind on an object of meditation, which are namely Yama (abstinences), niyama (observances), asana (yoga postures), pranayama (breath control), pratyahara (withdrawal of the senses), Dharana (concentration of the mind), dhyana (meditation) and samadhi (absorption). 

                 However, its main aim is kaivalya, discernment of Purusha, the witness-conscious. It’s separate from Prakriti. The cognitive apparatus, and disentanglement of Purusha from prakriti’s muddled defilements.

HAPPY FATHER’S DAY CELEBRATION

WE RESPECT OUR FATHER  

Happy Father’s Day Celebration

INTRODUCTION:

Today, June 19, is going to be celebrated as Father’s Day in most of the countries of the world. Though in a very few countries, Father’s Day is commemorated on different days. Like Mother’s Day, Father’s Day is also celebrated with great enthusiasm. 

In our society, parents are the backbone of the family as well as society. They used to sacrifice their lives for the betterment of children. So the children should be careful of their parents. They are obviously indebted to them. Because of this, it’s observed in society as Father’s Day. 

Happy Father’s Day Celebration

Father’s Day & Saint Joseph’s Day :

Father’s Day  is a holiday of honouring fatherhood and paternal bonds, as well as the influence of fathers in society. In Catholic countries of Europe, it has been celebrated on March 19 as Saint Joseph’s Day since the Middle Ages. 

     In the United States, Father’s Day was founded by Sonora Smart Dodd,[1][2][3] and celebrated on the third Sunday of June for the first time in 1910. The day is held on various dates across the world, and different regions maintain their own traditions of honouring fatherhood.

Happy Father’s Day Celebration

Josephus Laurentius Dyckmans 

Paternal Advice

Josephus Laurentius Dyckmans

Observed by

111+ countries

Type

Worldwide

Significance

Honours fathers and fatherhood

Date

Varies by country

Father’s Day is a recognised public holiday in Lithuania and some parts of Spain and was regarded as such in Italy until 1977. It is a national holiday in Estonia, Samoa, and equivalently in South Korea, where it is celebrated as Parents’ Day. The holiday complements similar celebrations honouring family members, such as Mother’s Day, Siblings Day, and Grandparents’ Day.

Early history

For centuries, the Eastern Orthodox Church has appointed the second Sunday before Nativity as the Sunday of the Forefathers to commemorate the ancestors of Christ according to the flesh, starting with Adam and emphasising the Patriarch Abraham, to whom God said,

In thy seed shall all of the nations of the earth be blessed

— Genesis 12:3, 22:18

This feast can fall between December 11 and 17.[4][5] This feast includes the ancestors of Mary, mother of Jesus and various prophets.

A customary day for the celebration of fatherhood in Catholic Europe is known to date back to at least 1508. It is usually celebrated on March 19, as the feast day of Saint Joseph, who is referred to as the fatherly Nutritor Domini (“Nourisher of the Lord”) in Catholicism and “the putative father of Jesus” in southern European tradition. 

This celebration was brought to the Americas by the Spanish and Portuguese. The Catholic Church actively supported the custom of a celebration of fatherhood on St. Joseph’s Day from either the last years of the 14th century or from the early 15th century,[6] apparently on the initiative of the Franciscans.[7]

In the Coptic Orthodox Church, the celebration of fatherhood is also observed on St Joseph’s Day, but the Copts observe this on July 20. The Coptic celebration may date back to the fifth century.[6]

Whether to celebrate this day worldwide or not remains a debatable topic. In 1908, Grace Golden Clayton proposed the day to honour those men who had lost their lives in a mining accident in the US.

WHY NOT ACCEPTED?

Though it was not accepted then, in 1909 Sonora Smart Dodd, who along with her five brothers was raised by her father alone, after attending Mother’s Day in a church, convinced the Spokane Ministerial Association to celebrate Father’s Day worldwide.[8][9]

Hindu Calendar 
Definition Sample Date 
Country/ Territory 
Bhadrapada Amavasya 
Gokarna 
Father’s Day

 South Korea (Parents’ Day)

Second Sunday in May

May 9, 2021

May 8, 2022

May 14, 2023

 Romania[13] (Ziua Tatălui)

Third Sunday in May

May 16, 2021

May 15, 2022

May 21, 2023

 Tonga

Ascension Day

May 13, 2021

May 26, 2022

May 18, 2023

 Germany

First Sunday in June

Jun 6, 2021

Jun 5, 2022

Jun 4, 2023

 Lithuania (Tėvo diena)

  Switzerland

June 5

 Denmark[14] (also Constitution Day)

Second Sunday in June

Jun 13, 2021

Jun 12, 2022

Jun 11, 2023

 Austria (Vatertag)

 Belgium

Third Sunday in June

June 20, 2021

Jun 19, 2022

Jun 18, 2023

Jun 16, 2024

 Afghanistan

 Algeria

 Albania

 Antigua and Barbuda

 Argentina[15]

 Aruba

 Bahamas

 Bahrain

 Bangladesh

 Barbados

 Belize

  Bermuda

  Bosnia and Herzegovina

  Botswana

  Brunei

  Burkina Faso

  Cambodia

  Canada

  Chad

  Chile[16]

  China**

  Colombia

  Comoros

  Costa Rica[17]

  Cuba[18]

  Curaçao

  Cyprus

  Czech Republic

  Dominica

  Ecuador

  Ethiopia

  France

  Georgia

  Ghana

  Greece

  Guernsey[19]

  Guyana

  Hong Kong

  Hungary

  India

  Ireland

  Isle of Man

  Ivory Coast

  Jamaica

  Japan

  Jersey[20]

  Kenya

  Kuwait

  Laos

  Macau

  Mali

  Madagascar

  Malaysia

  Maldives

  Malta

  Mauritius

  Mexico[21]

  Morocco

  Namibia

  Netherlands

  Nigeria

  Oman

  Pakistan

  Panama[22]

  Paraguay

  Peru[23]

  Philippines[24]

  Qatar

  Saint Lucia

  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

  Saudi Arabia

  Senegal

  Singapore

  Sierra Leone

  Slovakia

  South Africa

  Sri Lanka

  Suriname

  Tanzania

  Trinidad and Tobago

  Tunisia

  Turkey

  Uganda

  Ukraine[25]

  United Kingdom[26]

  United States

  Venezuela

  Vietnam

  Zambia

  Zimbabwe[27]

June 17

  El Salvador[28]

  Guatemala[29]

June 21

  Egypt

  Jordan

  Lebanon

  Syria

  United Arab Emirates

June 23

  Nicaragua

  Poland

Last Sunday in June

Jun 27, 2021

Jun 26, 2022

Jun 25, 2023

  Haiti

Second Sunday in July

Jul 11, 2021

Jul 10, 2022

Jul 9, 2023

  Uruguay

Last Sunday in July

Jul 25, 2021

Jul 31, 2022

Jul 30, 2023

  Dominican Republic

August 8[ii]

  Taiwan

Second Sunday in August

Aug 8, 2021

Aug 14, 2022

Aug 13, 2023

  Brazil (Dia dos Pais)

  Samoa

Last Monday in August

Aug 30, 2021

Aug 29, 2022

Aug 28, 2023

  South Sudan

First Sunday in September

Sep 5, 2021

Sep 4, 2022

Sep 3, 2023

  Australia

  Fiji

  New Zealand

  Papua New Guinea

Second Sunday in September

Sep 12, 2021

Sep 11, 2022

Sep 10, 2023

  Latvia

First Sunday in October

Oct 3, 2021

Oct 2, 2022

Oct 1, 2023

  Luxembourg

Third Sunday in October    Oct 17, 2021

Oct 16, 2022

Oct 15, 2023

  Russia[30]

Second Sunday in November

Nov 14, 2021

Nov 13, 2022

Nov 12, 2023

  Estonia (Isadepäev)

  Finland (Isänpäivä)

  Iceland (Feðradagur)

  Norway (Farsdag)

  Sweden (Fars dag)

November 12

  Indonesia

December 5

  Thailand (The birthday of King Bhumibol)[31]

December 26          Bulgaria

Hindu Calendar 
Definition Sample dates 
Country / Territory 
Bhadrapada Amavasya 
( Gokarna Aunsi ) 
Happy Father’s Day celebration

Between August 30 and September 30

    Nepal[32]

Islamic Calendar 
Occurrence Sample Dates 
County/ Territory 
Happy Father’s Day celebration

  Bahrain

  Iran

  Iraq

  Kuwait

  Mauritania

  Oman

  Qatar

  Somalia

  Sudan

  Syria

  Yemen

Burmese calendar

Occurrence    Sample dates    Country/territory

Full Moon Day of Tabaung

February / March

  Myanmar (Father’s Day)

       As with Russia, the celebration is officially for people who served or are serving in the Mongolian Armed Forces, but the congratulations are for all fathers and all other adult men and male children as well.

     Though Father’s Day on August 8 was first celebrated in Shanghai in 1945, there is no longer an official Father’s Day in mainland China since 1949.

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Happy Father’s Day celebration: quotation 

Happy Father’s Day Celebrations

               

“A father is someone you look up to no matter how tall you grow.”

– Unknown

“[My father] always provided me a safe place to land and a hard place from which to launch.”

– Chelsea Clinton

“When my father didn’t have my hand, he had my back.”

– Linda Poindexter

“Dads are most ordinary men turned by love into heroes, adventurers, storytellers, and singers of song.”

– Unknown( Happy Father’s Day Celebration)

“No man I ever met was my father’s equal, and I never loved any other man as much.”

– Hedy Lamarr

“My father gave me the greatest gift anyone could give another person, he believed in me.”

– Jim Valvano

“I’ve said it before, but it’s absolutely true: My mother gave me my drive, but my father gave me my dreams. Thanks to him, I could see the future.”

– Liza Minnelli

“My dad’s my best mate, and he always will be.”

– Cher Lloyd

“My father didn’t tell me how to live. He lived, and let me watch him do it.”

– Clarence Budington Kelland

“Anyone can be a father, but it takes someone special to be a dad, and that’s why I call you dad, because you are so special to me. You taught me the game and you taught me how to play it right.”

– Wade Boggs

“She did not stand alone, but what stood behind her, the most potent moral force in her life, was the love of her father.”

– Harper Lee, Go Set a Watchman

“To a father growing old nothing is dearer than a daughter.”

– Euripides

“I cannot think of any need in childhood as strong as the need for a father’s protection.”

– Sigmund Freud

“An almost perfect relationship with his father was the earthly root of all his wisdom.”

– C.S. Lewis

“A father carries pictures where his money used to be.”

– Steve Martin

“One father is more than a hundred schoolmasters.”

– George Herbert

“No man stands taller than when he stoops to help a child.”

– Abraham Lincoln

“When a father gives to his son, both laugh; when a son gives to his father, both cry.”

– William Shakespeare

“To her, the name of father was another name for love.”

– Fanny Fern

“A father is the one friend upon whom we can always rely.”

– Emile Gaboriau

“Some people don’t believe in heroes, but they haven’t met my dad.”

– Unknown

“Having a kid is like falling in love for the first time when you’re 12, but every single day.”

– Mike Myers

“Daddies don’t just love their children every now and then, it’s a love without end.”

– George Strait

“By profession I am a soldier and take great pride in that fact, but I am also prouder, infinitely prouder, to be a father. A soldier destroys in order to build; the father only builds, never destroys.”

– General Douglas MacArthur

“He adopted a role called being a father so that his child would have something mythical and infinitely important: a protector.”

– Tom Wolfe

“It is easier to build strong children than to repair broken men.”

– Frederick Douglass

“Lately all my friends are worried they’re turning into their fathers. I’m worried I’m not.”

– Dan Zevin

“I believe that what we become depends on what our fathers teach us at odd moments, when they aren’t trying to teach us. We are formed by little scraps of wisdom.”

– Umberto Eco, Foucault’s Pendulum

“It was times like these when I thought my father, who hated guns and had never been to any wars, was the bravest man who ever lived.”

– Harper Lee, To Kill A Mockingbird

“There’s no shame in fear, my father told me, what matters is how we face it.”

– George R.R. Martin, A Clash of Kings

“Every son’s first superhero is his father”

– Tiger 

“The heart of a father is the masterpiece of nature.”

– Antoine François Prévost, Manon Lescaut

zusak

“Sometimes I think my papa is an accordion. When he looks at me and smiles and breathes, I hear the notes.”

– Markus Zusak, The Book Thief

“A father is neither an anchor to hold us back nor a sail to take us there, but a guiding light whose love shows us the way.”

– Unknow

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